As Philip Reno, assistant professor of anthropology at Pennsylvania State University, stated, there is not much difference between the male and female of Australopithecus afarensis. He stated that at the time males were thought to be much larger than females and that there was some sexual dimorphism, although this has been found not to be the case.
After several investigations it has been discovered that both body size and weight and even the size of the canine teeth were very similarAlthough it was assumed from the beginning that the body mass of both sexes was completely different based on the fact that other primates have different degrees of sexual dimorphism.
For example, if gorillas are taken into account, they are known to be highly dimorphic since gorillas can weigh much more than females. On the other hand, chimpanzees do not have that much difference between males and females, with just a few extra kilos. The same happens with humans, with a moderate dimorphism
This dimorphism is also present in the brainNot only in body size and mass, although there are no remains of this material, but the interior of the cranial cavity cannot be studied.
Lucy is one of the clearest examples of Australopithecus afarensis, who has been studied repeatedly and who is considered the oldest and best preserved example of his species, who must be added to another specimen, who was baptized as Kadanuumuu, taller than Lucy, although for sure, and according to expert research, The sex of an Australopithecus cannot be determined with 100% and it has even been said that Lucy might not be a female.
Both specimens also present dimorphism since Lucy is quite a bit smaller than Kadanuumuu, but despite this they were used to create templates to compare similar parts of the skeleton with other specimens.
Researchers have compared the size of 41 specimens related to different parts of Lucy's skeleton in order to calculate the relative size of the partial bones of incomplete skeletons and thus determine the variation in size of the species.
One of the problems when comparing different skeletons or remains of afarensis is that individuals could be thousands of years apart and during that time the species could have changed. Since Lucy was the first specimen discovered, it was supposed to be a normal size, but with Kadanuumuu being discovered, things have changed, so more research needs to be done, and a lot, it seems.
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