Randall APA-224 - History

Randall APA-224 - History

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(APA-224: dp. 14,833, 1. 455'; b. 62'; dr. 28'1"; s. 17 k.;
cpl. 536; trp. 1,562, a. 1 5", 12 40mm. cl. Haskell; T.VC2-S-AP5) '

Randall (APA-224), built under Maritime Commission eontraet (MCV hull 572), was laid down 15 September 1944 bv the Permanente Metals Corp., Yard No. 2, Richmond, Calif. launched 15 November 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Donaid D. Dick, and acquired by the Navy and commissioned IG December 1944, Capt. Harold R. Stevens in command.

Following shakedown and training off the California coast Randall departed San Diego, 9 February 1945, for Peari Harbor, whence, after further training, she sailed on 2 March via Eniwetok for the Voleano Islands. Arriving at Iwo Jima on 25 March, she discharged Army passengers and cargo and e~nbarked marines for transportation to Guam. On 20 April she returned to Pearl Harbor, thence carried drummed petroleum products to Kwajalein where she took on Navy and Slarine personnel for return to the United States. Arriving at San Francisco 18 June, she sailed, 9 July, for Ulithi, embarked Arlily units, then continued on to Okinawa, arriving 12 August.

With the end of World War II, Randall was assigned to occupation duty and on 5 September got underway for Korea with units of the 7th Army Division. Returning to Okinawa, she carried marines to Taku, 26-30 September, then, after a run to the Philippines, sailed again for the China coast. Between 22 October and 23 November, she ferried Chinese troops from Kowloon to Chinwangtao and Tsingtao and on the 29th departed the Far East on her first "Magic Carpet" run carrying Army Air Corps units from Okinawa to Seattle.

Detached from "Magic Carpet" duty in August 1946, Randall was employed in the pacific Fleet's amphibious training program from September until December when she returned to the east coast, underwent overhaul, and was briefly immobilized at New York. She then steamed to Norfolk, arriving 24 April 1947. Assigned again to amphibious training duties, she operated along the southeastern seaboard until August 1948 when she steamed north for operations off eastern Canada. In September she resumed exercises off the Virginia and Carolina coasts.

In February 1949 she again departed the eastern seaboard this time for Caribbean operations, and during the fall steamed back into the Pacific for exercises as far west as Hawaii, returning to Norfolk and resuming training operations with naval reservists and marines, 1 December.

For the next 5 years she continued such training operations along the east coast, in the Caribbean, and twice, MarchJuly 1951 and May-October 1954, in the Mediterranean. At the end of 1955 Randall was ordered inactivated and on 25 January 1956 she arrived at Orange, Tex., to join the Atlantic Reserve Fleet. Decommissioned 6 April 1956, she remained in reserve at Orange until transferred to the Maritime Administration's National Defense Reserve Fleet at Mobile in February 1960. Her name was struck from the Navy list 1 July 1960. She was berthed at Mobile until sold in 1971.

AT&T CEO John Stankey's biggest corporate reversal in history rejects former boss Randall Stephenson

It didn't work. It was misguided. It never really made sense to begin with. And we're not talking about Quibi.

AT&T announced Monday it decided to spin off WarnerMedia, merging it with Discovery to form a new media and entertainment company likely worth well over $100 billion.

AT&T's decision to split out WarnerMedia comes less than three years after closing its $100 billion transaction, including debt, is an admission that putting a large content asset with a wireless phone company had few long-lasting synergies. If anything, WarnerMedia became an albatross on AT&T shares, which have underperformed Verizon and T-Mobile since the deal's completion date on June 14, 2018.

AT&T CEO John Stankey also sold a 30% stake in DirecTV and other linear pay-TV assets in February, along with operational control, to TPG. That deal also partially unwound a major AT&T acquisition from just a few years earlier. AT&T spent $67.1 billion, including debt, on DirecTV in 2015.

Stankey was former AT&T CEO Randall Stephenson's right-hand man. He had defended the DirecTV and the Time Warner acquisitions in the past.

But his actions signal something that his words have not: both deals haven't worked.

Here's what Stephenson said about why AT&T should buy Time Warner right after the deal was announced in 2016.

"Why put the two companies together?" Stephenson said. "The world of distribution and content is converging, and we need to move fast, and if we want to do something truly unique, begin to curate content differently, begin to format content different for these mobile environments — this is all about mobility. Think DirecTV Now, the new product we're bringing to market. What can you do with Time Warner content really fast and very uniquely for our customers? Can you begin to integrate social into that content? Can you give the capability to . I'm watching content, I want to clip it, I want to send it via social media to my friends. Can we iterate on that quickly, and can we give a unique experience to our customers?"

Whatever he was talking about there never happened. Instead, here's what has happened.

Media companies have realized that linear pay-TV is a slowly dying business. That's why Stankey partially unloaded DirecTV, a linear pay-TV distribution business.

Media companies have attempted to counteract the loss of pay-TV subscribers with direct-to-consumer services that allow users to pay for access to content without subscribing to cable. This has turned entertainment giants into distribution platforms, themselves, a la Netflix.

After running WarnerMedia for about two years, Stankey clearly concluded AT&T was at best not necessary as an owner of media assets and at worse holding the wireless company and the media business back.

"My job as the CEO of AT&T is to turn out to the employee body, who all have good ideas on how to grow this business and where to take it, and make sure I facilitate those opportunities," Stankey told reporters Monday. "Looking out over the next couple years on these great growth opportunities we have at AT&T, whether it's fixed broadband, what we do in wireless and what we can do in growing the media business, it became clear to me that we were going to need a different capital structure to get that done. It was important that I not do something in my decision-making that caused anyone to slow down in their execution."

Stankey went on to acknowledge that instead of supercharging WarnerMedia, as Stephenson had hoped, AT&T was actually holding WarnerMedia back.

"Streaming has evolved in the last couple of years," Stankey said. "The global opportunity from a shareholder accretion perspective is far greater to seize that opportunity on a stand-alone basis than it is to continue to work on improving our domestic connectivity business."

In other words, Stankey said adding Discovery's content and giving WarnerMedia flexibility to spend billions on content was better for AT&T than any benefits WarnerMedia provided AT&T wireless.

That's as clear of an acknowledgement as possible that Stankey concluded vertical integration wasn't helping AT&T shareholders.

Millions Went to War

From early 1942 to 1945, the United States had been shipping troops out across the Pacific to take part in the fight against the Japanese. While some would remain behind in Japan as occupying forces, the vast majority would eventually need to be repatriated.

The effort to bring American servicemen home technically started even before the formal end of the war. By mid-1943, nearly a year after the Battle of Midway turned the tide of war in the Allies’ favor, the United States military realized it would need a massive effort to bring home the more than eight million troops scattered across all theaters. Committee to determine the best course of action were established by Army Chief of Staff General George Marshall, and responsibility the implementation of the resulting recommendations fell to the War Shipping Administration (WSA).

In Band of Brothers GIs Could Retun Home if They Had 85 Points, Was This True?

The TV miniseries Band of Brothers provided information about WWII to many people. While some of the facts in the show were exaggerated, was the points system used for returning home accurate? If the points system was part of the demobilization of American troops, what was it based on?

US troops returning home aboard the USS General Harry Taylor in August 1945

The points system in Band of Brothers is one of the historically accurate aspects of the show. At the end of the war, the American public demanded the rapid demobilization of overseas troops. This resulted in Operation Magic Carpet.

As part of the operation, American troops were classified into four categories.

Category I was units which would remain in Europe.

Category II was the troops that would be re-deployed to the Pacific arena.

The hangar bay of the U.S. aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CV-6) during a “Magic Carpet” voyage to bring U.S. servicemen back to the U.S. from Europe in late 1945.

Category III was troops to be reorganized and retrained before being placed in Categories I and II.

Category IV was troops that were to return to the US to be deactivated and discharged. This category consisted of soldiers who qualified for a discharge from the armed forces based on the points system.

In Band of Brothers, a soldier needed 85 points to be able to return home. This is accurate, as this was the number of points required to be placed in Category IV.

There were some soldiers at the end of the war who had accumulated over 140 points. In these cases, the number was rounded down to 85.

A total of 29,204 servicemen returned aboard USS Saratoga, more than on any other individual ship.

To earn points, certain activities would need to be carried out by the soldiers. No points were given for age or marital status.

Men who had three or more dependent children under the age of eighteen were eligible for Category IV placement. This was done regardless of the number of points they had earned during their service.

A single point was given for each month of military service. One point was also earned for each month of overseas military service. These points accumulated together with overseas soldiers earning two points per month.

U.S. Soldiers march in a victory parade in Dusseldorf, Germany, on V-E Day, May 8, 1945.

Five points were given for combat awards. The awards included the Distinguished Service Cross, the Medal of Honor, the Purple Heart, and the Soldier’s Medal. It did not include the Combat Infantryman Badge which caused contention among the soldiers.

Five points were also provided for each campaign participation star. Campaigns and battles were only accepted from a predetermined list and did not include all campaigns.

General Dwight D. Eisenhower awarding the Distinguished Service Cross.

The highest number of points awarded was 12 and this was for dependent children under the age of 18. No points were provided for dependent children over the age of 18.

An example of these points in action would be a soldier who served three years in the army including one year overseas, had a dependent child, and fought in Central Europe campaigns.

For his years in service, he would be awarded 36 points and 12 points for his time overseas. He would get 12 points for his dependent child and five for the Central Europe campaign. This would result in him having 65 points which is not enough to be sent back home.

April 16, 1945: US Soldiers of 3rd Division.

The points needed to be placed in Category IV varied depending on rank and troop class. For most of the forces, 85 points were needed. Officers also required 85 points, but this was revised down to 80 points just after VJ Day.

U.S. servicemen returning to San Francisco, California (USA), aboard the U.S. Navy attack transport USS Randall (APA-224), in 1946.

The points required for medical personnel also varied depending on department.

MAC troops required 88 points while MC troops needed 85. The Nurses Corps required 71 points, physical therapists needed 65 points while dietitians and hygienists required 62 points.

The discharge program for medical personnel ended in July 1945 as there was a demand for these troops in the Pacific.

U.S. troops heading back to the United States as part of Operation Magic Carpet.

The points system was controversial with the troops, particularly the infantrymen. They believed that the system unfairly favored rear-echelon troops as the Combat Infantryman Badge was not part of the awards.

These men felt the threat they faced as front-line troops was not considered in the points system.

In the months following the end of the war, the points system was adjusted. The point threshold for demobilization was lowered and the categories were redesignated. The categories were changed to Occupation Forces, Redeployment Forces, and Liquidation Forces.

A Victory ship troop transport conversion, arriving in Boston with 1,958 troops from Europe, July 26, 1945.

To be eligible for Liquidation Forces categorization, the troops were required to have between 60 to 79 points. This adjusted system led to problems in post-war occupied Germany as many experienced officers and NCOs were discharged.

In December 1945, a new policy was started and was based on the points system and length of service.

Under the new policy, officers would need 70 points and four years of military service to be discharged. Women’s Army Corps officers would require 37 points and medical officers 55 points. All enlisted men would require 45 points and four years of service while enlisted women required 32 points.

New York City’s Randall’s Island is a destination not only for New Yorkers, but for travelers far and wide. Located in the city’s East River, Randall’s Island is known today as an entertainment haven, complete with athletic fields, driving ranges, and concert venues. Additionally, the island is a transportation hub, hosting the Robert F. Kennedy, previously known as the Triborough, Bridge. This bridge, which is actually a system of 3 separate bridges, connect Manhattan, Queens, and the Bronx, using Randall’s Island as the point of junction. All of these modern purposes, as well as the uses of the past, have helped shape Randall’s Island into a critical piece of New York City’s history and infrastructure.

The story of Randall’s Island begins quite early so early, in fact, that it comes very shortly after the beginning of Dutch settlement of Manhattan in 1624.[1] In 1637, the Dutch purchased Minnahanonck, Randall’s Island, and Tenkenas, Wards Island, from the Lenape in order to develop more farming land. The resulting purchases were renamed to Little Barn Island and Big Barn Island, respectively.[2] This was the first public purchase of the islands, a trend that would not continue again for some time. After the purchase, the islands maintained the function of farming and other natural purposes, such as housing the rock quarry for the Old Trinity Church.[3] The first private purchase of the islands came in 1772, with Captain John Montresor of the British Military purchasing and renaming Little Barn Island after himself. The newly minted Montresor’s Island became his settlement until the Revolutionary War began, when it was used by the British to launch attacks on Manhattan until their evacuation in 1783.[4] Montresor used the island to analyze the city for points of invasion prior to the war, and throughout the war’s timeframe, he turned the island into an officers’ hospital. Also to note, Big Barn Island became a military base during the war, establishing an active military role for both islands during the Revolutionary War.[5]

The next private purchase of Randall’s Island came in 1784, when it was purchased by Jonathan Randel, whom it is still named after today despite the slight spelling difference, a mistake by the city.[6] Randall’s Island remained in the Randel family until 1835, when it was purchased by the City of New York for 60,000 dollars.[7] The city purchased Wards Island soon after, in 1851, and together they served a number of public functions.[8] This purchase marked the end of private ownership of Randall’s Island, which quickly began being used for a wide variety of public functions, such as the relocation of Manhattan potter’s fields and the construction of various institutions. Randall’s Island was made home of an orphanage, children’s hospital, and a reform school called The House of Refuge. The House of Refuge was intended to incarcerate teenage criminals, mainly Irish, where they spent part of their day in religious and school-curriculum based classes, and the other part of their day performing lucrative labor for the state. The conditions were not ideal, as the boys were forced to perform this labor for outside contractors, and those who misbehaved were punished. It wasn’t until 1887, when the labor from residents no longer became lucrative, that conditions somewhat improved.[9]

Meanwhile, Wards Island was mainly used as a relocation site for Manhattan potters fields, which were becoming overwhelmed due to the rapidly rising population and length of settlement. Starting in 1840, nearly 100,000 bodies were moved from the Madison Square Park and Bryant Park potter’s fields, finding a new location in the southern tip of Wards Island.[10] In addition to assisting in the relocation of the potters fields, Wards Island was also home to the State Emigrant Refuge, a hospital for “sick and destitute immigrants”, one of the largest hospital complexes in the world during the 1850s.[11] These rededication of the use of Randall’s and Wards Islands was not unique, and in fact, can be seen as a small example of greater New York City trends. The city had become one with a rapidly growing population and an even quicker growing issue of separated wealth. The wealthy were growing richer, and the poor poorer, causing the city to begin trying to separate the suffering from the successful. By relocating the potters fields and the treatment facilities for the City’s less fortunate citizens to a separate island, the city was physically putting distance between itself and some of its major issues, a trend that would often continue in the future.

Through the latter half of the 19 th century, Randall’s Island continued to grow in its public services. In addition to the aforementioned House of Refuge, the island also became home to the Idiot Asylum, a homeopathic hospital, the Inebriate Asylum, and the City Insane Asylum, further solidifying the trend of segregation of its “undesirable” residents.[12] The island had grown from a small farming island, to a private residence, to an important wartime location, to an area of suffering under the name of “public service”. The purchase of both Randall’s and Wards Islands allowed the city to have a water-based separation between its main population and the less savory side of urban life, such as proper burial grounds and dealing with those less fortunate. The city now had the ability to physically separate itself from many issues, highlighting a dark time both in the history of Randall’s Island and the City of New York as a whole.

The turn of the 20 th century marked a time of great transformation for Randall’s and Wards Islands. From this point forward, the islands would cease being a place for the city to dispose of issues, but rather, a place for the city to grow. The city began to realize the value of the location of the islands, and started to work on making them more connected both to each other and the rest of the city. Construction began in September 1916, on the Hell Gate Bridge and railroad trestle. This connected both islands, as well as Queens and the South Bronx.[13] Soon after that, in 1929, the city began construction on the 17-mile Triborough Bridge. The islands began to be significantly more connected to the rest of the city, beginning their transition into their greater roles to serve not just the city’s problems, but also its needs and wants.

An image depicting Randall’s and Wards Islands before the merge

The year 1930 marked one of the greatest changes in the history of Randall’s and Wards Islands since their purchase by the city, as this was the year the Metropolitan Conference on Parks recommended the islands have all of their institutions removed. With their removal, the islands were left, instead, with a more recreational focus.[14] The city acted on the recommendation in 1933, officially transferring ownership of the islands to the Department of Parks and Recreation, which immediately began working to transform Randall’s Island to parkland. In 1935, the Department evacuated the children’s hospital and demolished the House of Refuge, putting an end to the island’s time housing this line of work. From this point forward, recreation and transportation become the main purpose of the islands.[15] Over the following years, the islands begin to see the construction of numerous fields and tennis courts, as well as the construction of Triborough Stadium. In 1936, the Triborough Bridge and Triborough stadium opened, hosting the Olympic track and field trials. Interestingly, it was at this event that Jesse Owens qualified for the 1936 Berlin Olympics.[16]

Following the theme of connectivity, the Randall’s Island did continue to expand in both its connections and service to the rest of the city. In 1937, a sewage treatment plant opened on Wards Island, servicing the city’s waste in a safer manner more removed from the main boroughs. Additionally, in 1951, the Wards Island Pedestrian Bridge opened, providing Manhattan residents with significantly easier access to the parks on both islands.[17] It was also around this time that the area in between the two islands was turned into a landfill, finally physically connecting them for the future under the name of Randall’s Island.

Hell Gate and Triborough Bridges New York City Queens

As time passed, the Randall’s Island continued to expand in the realm of recreation, hosting music festivals and concerts for the masses. Spanning from the 1970s to present day, the biggest names in music and entertainment held concerts and events on the island, drawing New Yorkers to the parks for various forms of entertainment. In the most recent updates to the island, Downing Stadium, the original sporting stadium, was demolished in 2003 to create the new Icahn Stadium, and in the same year, a ferry dock was constructed on the Harlem River Waterfront.[18] This development made the island even more accessible, as now there were vehicular and pedestrian bridges and water access, connecting those from much further away through New York’s complex ferry system.

Today, New York’s Randall’s Island is a popular travel destination, described by the city as, “An oasis in the middle of New York City, Randall’s Island Park comprises most of an island in the East River, between East Harlem, the South Bronx and Astoria, Queens.”[19] The island boasts an impressive and sprawling recreational complex, including Icahn Stadium, a 20-court tennis center, more than 60 playing fields, miles of pedestrian walkways and bike paths, and over 9 acres of restored wetlands.[20] In 2010, the Randall’s Island Community Access Task Force published the Randall’s Island Park Access Guide, an in depth look into the operations and offerings of the park, including maps and historical background.[21] This group works to maintain a visitor-friendly interface, allowing more people than ever to visit one of New York’s greatest treasures. Whether it be concert going, sporting, or just enjoying the fresh air with friends and family, Randall’s Island has an accommodation for every New Yorker and every visitor to experience a true piece of local history.

The development of Randalls Island, its changing use over time, its often dark past, and its eventual use for entertainment are all not necessarily unique. While certainly the island has its own story and timeline, many of the trends and struggles faced within were small examples of New York City and American Culture as a whole. Historically, New York City has often been seen as a city of vice, suffering with issues of drinking, prostitution, and rampant poverty and wealth disparity. While the city advanced and modernized, often times the “average” citizen most felt the price of progress, struggling to survive without much help. Painter George Bellows, a New York City painter from the mid-nineteenth century, often depicted these struggles in his works. Pieces such as “Cliff Dwellers”, “New York”, and “Men of the Docks” captured the struggles of New York City’s average citizens, especially those of the lower class. Author Edward Wolner perfectly captures the intended message of Bellows’ work, saying, “Bellows’s New York captures the city’s clashing energies, its centripetal and centrifugal tensions, and its unexampled range of conflicts before such compelling vitality was taken for granted or began to thin out in the globalizing forces that the metropolis itself first concentrated and unleashed.”[22] The city was, indeed, a city of conflicting people and forces, and this can be seen throughout the history of Randalls Island.

George Bellows, “New York”. Depicting the crowds and bustle of the city

What is most interesting, though, is how the most recent history of the Island has truly reflected a greater change in the city of New York. The city has begun to work to change its racial and class struggles, making the city somewhere that anyone can make their own future. The Island, with its development into a space for all residents to enjoy and utilize for exercise, entertainment, and even travel, is an example of how the city is making changes for all of its citizens, not just those who can afford to cash out for them.

[1] History.com Staff, “New Amsterdam Becomes New York,” History.com, last modified September 8, 2010, http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/new-amsterdam-becomes-new-york.

[2] Randall’s Island Park Alliance, Historical Timeline, Randall’s Island Park Alliance, last modified 2016, accessed September 20, 2017, https://randallsisland.org/timeline/.

[5] Bess Lovejoy, Islands of the Undesirables: Randall’s Island and Wards Island, Atlas Obscura, last modified June 2, 2015, accessed October 4, 2017, http://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/islands-of-the-undesirables-randall-s-island-and-wards-island.

[7] Randall’s Island Park Alliance, Historical Timeline, Randall’s Island Park Alliance.

[8] Lovejoy, Islands of the Undesirables: Randall’s Island and Wards Island, Atlas Obscura.

[10] Lovejoy, Islands of the Undesirables: Randall’s Island and Wards Island, Atlas Obscura.

[13] Randall’s Island Park Alliance, Historical Timeline, Randall’s Island Park Alliance.

[14] Lovejoy, Islands of the Undesirables: Randall’s Island and Wards Island, Atlas Obscura.

[15] Randall’s Island Park Alliance, Historical Timeline, Randall’s Island Park Alliance.

[18] New York City Department of Parks & Recreation, Randall’s Island Park, NYC Parks, accessed October 1, 2017, https://www.nycgovparks.org/parks/randalls-island.

[19] New York City Department of Parks & Recreation, Randall’s Island Park, NYC Parks, accessed October 1, 2017, https://www.nycgovparks.org/parks/randalls-island.

[21] Randall’s Island Park Access Guide (New York, NY: Randall’s Island Community Access Task Force, 2010), https://www.nycgovparks.org/parks/M104/map/randalls_island_park_access_guide.pdf.

[22] Edward W. Wolner, “George Bellows, Georg Simmel, and Modernizing New York,” in Historical Abstracts, previously published in American Art 29, no. 1 (Spring 2015): 106-21, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,sso&db=hia&AN=101785223&site=ehost-live&authtype=sso&custid=s8475574.

Bellows, George. New York. 1911. Illustration. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:George_Bellows_-_New_York.jpg.

Hell Gate and Triborough Bridges New York City Queens. Photograph. Wikimedia Commons. October 7, 2004. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hell_Gate_and_Triborough_Bridges_New_York_City_Queens.jpg.

History.com Staff. “New Amsterdam Becomes New York.” History.com. Last modified September 8, 2010. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/new-amsterdam-becomes-new-york.

Islam, Adnan. Cherry Blossom Festival. Photograph. Flickr. May 2, 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/adnanbangladesh/17231284498/in/photolist-sfEQy3-U4RQ4d-nKQRdH-bnfy3E-UAiRkW-U6y8eu-Tntsgy-UAiMNA-3o1wRy-TntrRW-nrRiux-Tpc4h7-fKDEE1-U4RPuN-cYpNNf-pHVpsZ-ehudz-qEwuXF-88MBrQ-88MF5u-ntmtXU-UpEJBA-mQkddf-xpRtZ-88MAGf-VwiDXS-odXuBe-nyRhQV-nyRhyG-nMn7Dz-nRgVKC-nrQ9Mp-egXVFu-hW31Na-nRkWHT-nyS9iv-4Sru8X-nRgVeY-nyRhzo-nyRxyJ-nR3SPv-hW25vp-7VJChF-UAiTmu-4H8iYt-6KPBaH-UsroCV-UpEK7y-TntnrJ-o9QTiN.

Lovejoy, Bess. “Islands of the Undesirables: Randall’s Island and Wards Island.” Atlas Obscura. Last modified June 2, 2015. Accessed October 4, 2017. http://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/islands-of-the-undesirables-randall-s-island-and-wards-island.

Secondary: This article was written to expose the darker history of Randall’s/Ward Islands in dealing with psychiatric patients and other “undesireable” members of society. I plan to use this to go with a primary source of psychological study conducted on Randall’s Island to explore a different story than the one normally presented for tourist purposes.

New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. “Randall’s Island Park.” NYC Parks. Accessed October 1, 2017. https://www.nycgovparks.org/parks/randalls-island.

Secondary: This source is NYC’s official page for Randall’s Island and tourism advertisement. Demonstrates the history/highlights of the Island as NYC wants the world to see and how the Island is mainly used.

Poull, Louise Elizabeth, Lillie Peatman, Helen Bennett King, and Ada Salome Bristol. “The Randall’s Island Performance Series Two, Three, and Four Year Tests.” In Columbia University Press. Previously published in Columbia University Press, March 1931. https://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.$b239233.

Primary: This source is a psychological study conducted in the late 19th-early 20th century analyzing children in the psychiatric hospital on Randall’s Island. Provides insight into the history of the island’s non-sport related history.

Randall’s Island and Ward’s Island — before the Merge. Photograph. Bowery Boys. Accessed October 2, 2017. http://www.boweryboyshistory.com/2009/11/re-visiting-secrets-of-randalls-and.html.

Primary: This image shows Randall’s and Ward Islands before they were merged by a landfill. This demonstrates the evolution of the islands over time to fit the specific needs of the city. I am attempting to track down a more verifiable version of this source either in database or with photographer information.

Randall’s Island Park Access Guide. New York, NY: Randall’s Island Community Access Task Force, 2010. https://www.nycgovparks.org/parks/M104/map/randalls_island_park_access_guide.pdf.

Primary: This guide explains the layout/usage of Randall’s Island Park as it stood in 2010. It will provide insight into how the island is being used primarily for the park and some residential areas.

Randall’s Island Park Alliance. “Historical Timeline.” Randall’s Island Park Alliance. Last modified 2016. Accessed September 20, 2017. https://randallsisland.org/timeline/.

Secondary: This source will be used to establish a timeline of important events/developments in the history of Randall’s/Ward Island. Will be used as a jumping off point for further topics to research.

Randall is the most cheerful and immature of the Knights, which leads him to be the joker of the group. Like his companions, he dedicates his life to the cause of fighting against evil magic, affirming that for him it is like being a superhero. His lack of experience often leads him to be more impulsive and make bad decisions, but these are always motivated by his big heart. Randall always thinks of others before him, especially in his friends, a trait that sometimes brings problems.


  • Werewolf Transformation: Randall is able to transform into a werewolf.
  • Magic Detection: Randall is able to detect magic.
  • Enhanced Senses: Randall has enhanced senses since he has worn the Hide for quite some time.

How Was the Randall Museum Founded?

One of Ms. Randall’s long-term goals was to establish a nature museum for children. She believed that learning should be fun and imagined a museum that combined science and art, inspiring visitors to develop interests that would last throughout their lives. In 1937 her vision came to fruition when the “Junior Museum” opened in the city’s old jail on Ocean Avenue. Ten years later Ms. Randall shepherded a $12 million bond issue for recreation capital projects including a new museum. The new facility opened in 1951 on a 16-acre park overlooking San Francisco Bay. In recognition of Josephine Randall’s vision, hard work, and dedication, the museum was renamed in her honor. In 2004, the outdoor areas were renovated and in 2016 the entire interior of the museum was redesigned and revitalized to better serve its visitors.

Milton Supman’s Home, Detroit, Michigan

Milton Supman’s Detroit Home, more professionally known as Soupy Sales. Milton Supman (January 8, 1926 – October 22, 2009), known professionally as Soupy Sales, was an American comedian, actor, radio/television personality, and jazz aficionado.He was best known for his local and network children’s television show, Lunch with Soupy Sales (1953-1966), a series of comedy sketches frequently ending with Sales receiving a pie in the face, which became his trademark.From 1968 to 1975, he was a regular panelist on the syndicated revival of What’s My Line? and appeared on several other TV game shows. During the 1980s, Sales hosted his own show on WNBC-AM in New York City.

Milton Supman was born in Franklinton, North Carolina, to Irving Supman and Sadie Berman. His father, a Jewish dry goods merchant, had emigrated from Hungary in 1894.His was the only Jewish family in the town Sales joked that local Ku Klux Klan members bought the sheets used for their robes from his father’s store.

Sales got his nickname from his family. His older brothers had been nicknamed “Ham Bone” and “Chicken Bone.” Milton was dubbed “Soup Bone,” which was later shortened to “Soupy”. When he became a disc jockey, he began using the stage name Soupy Hines. After he became established, it was decided that “Hines” was too close to the Heinz soup company, so he chose Sales, in part after vaudeville comedian Chic Sale.

Sales graduated from Huntington High School in Huntington, West Virginia in 1944. He enlisted in the United States Navy and served on the USS Randall (APA-224) in the South Pacific during the latter part of World War II. He sometimes entertained his shipmates by telling jokes and playing crazy characters over the ship’s public address system. One of the characters he created was “White Fang”, a large dog that played outrageous practical jokes on the seamen. The sounds for “White Fang” came from a recording of The Hound of the Baskervilles.

Sales enrolled at Marshall College in Huntington, WV, where he earned a master’s degree in Journalism. While at Marshall, he performed in nightclubs as a comedian, singer and dancer. After graduating, Sales began working as a scriptwriter and disc jockey at radio station WHTN (now WVHU) in Huntington. He moved to Cincinnati, Ohio in 1949, where he worked as a morning radio DJ and performed in nightclubs. Sales began his television career on WKRC-TV in Cincinnati with Soupy’s Soda Shop, TV’s first teen dance program, and Club Nothing!, a late-night comedy/variety program. When WKRC canceled his TV shows, Sales moved to Cleveland, Ohio, where he hosted another radio and TV series on WJW-TV (Channel 8) and continued his nightclub act. It was in a skit on his late night comedy/variety TV series Soupy’s On! that he got his first pie in the face. Sales claimed he left the Cleveland station “for health reasons: they got sick of me.” He relocated to Detroit in 1953 and worked for WXYZ-TV (Channel 7), ABC’s O&O station
Lunch with Soupy Sales began in 1953 from the studios of WXYZ-TV, Channel 7, located in the historic Maccabees Building, in Detroit. Sales occasionally took the studio cameras to the lawn of the Detroit Public Library, located across the street from the TV studios, and talked with local students walking to and from school. Beginning no later than July 4, 1955, a Saturday version of Sales’s lunch show was broadcast nationally on the ABC television network. His lunchtime program on weekdays was moved to early morning opposite Today and Captain Kangaroo.

Kasane Randall - Scarlet Nexus

Kasane Randall in Scarlet Nexus is the playable character and main protagonist of the game. In Scarlet Nexus, players take control of Kasane Randall or Yuito Sumeragi, who are the new recruits of the Other Suppression Force or OSF, an elite force who is humanity’s last line of defense.

Who else is going to save them? This isn't a question about if we can do it. We have to.

Yuito OSF Record

  • HP: .
  • Power: .
  • Defense: .
  • Military Rank: Elite Cadet
  • Height: Unknown
  • Hometown: Unknown
  • Psionic Ability: Psychokinesis (Gravity Control)
  • Weapon: Arrowroot Leaf

About Kasane Randall

Kasane Official Description

An elite solider with superb fighting skills and power, she was scouted by the OSF and has graduated at the top of her class. Cool and confident, she is usually indifferent to people around her. She reveals her real kind self only to the ones she trusts

She lost her parents in an Other attack as a child and was adobpted by the Randall's, a family running a huge militrary corporation. While her relationship with her adoptive parents is complicated, her adoptive sister Naomi is the only person showing her affection, leading to a strong bond and deep love between them.

The hand-made hair ornament that Naomi gifted her is Kasane's most prized possession. She is frequently having strange dreams about "red strings". The meaning of those dreams is still a mystery to this day.

Kasane Randall Gameplay

  • Kasane wields the Arrowloot Leaf. The Arrorwroot Leaf is a knife Kasane has been using as a weapon since her days as a cadet. It has a collapsible design with a one-sided edge, making it easy and safe to wield.
  • Kasane Randall is armed with the talent of Pyschokinesis. Unleash the power of his mind to lift, break, and throw pieces of your environment to build your attack combos and lay waste to your enemies.
  • It seems players will be able to unleash devastating finishers to completely kill a weakened or low health enemy. : By attacking or destroying enemies, your concentration increases, and you will enter a state of brain drive. In this state, your attack speed and movement speed will increase, the Psychokinesis power will increase, the time it takes to use it will decrease, and you will be able to fight more rapidly. : Struggle Arms System or SAS is a system that allows you to temporarily borrow the psychic abilities of your party members (Companions) by connecting your brain to theirs via a virtual cable. With this system, you can borrow psychic abilities Pyrokinesis, Duplication, Invisibility, Teleportation, Sclerokinesis, and more of your party members and activate them for a certain period. By combining it with weapons and Psychokinesis, a variety of battle tactics become possible. The SAS gauge is used, and it is effective as long as the gauge lasts. : Forbidden power comes with a price. The power of the brain to affect the outside world is increased to the utmost limit, and a special space is developed in which the user’s psychic ability is most advantageous. While the brain space is activated, the user cannot attack with weapons, but can use powerful psychokinetic attacks without limit. On the other hand, because it draws out power beyond the limit, it places a heavy burden on the user, so there is a great risk involved in continuing to use it.

Kasane Randall Combat

  • Kasane's Fighting Style : Kasane fights using her power, "Psychokinesis" to attack with objects and by attacking with the multiple "Knives" she has equipped. She is good at using area of effect attacks when surrounded and fighting mid-air.
  • Kasane Special Attack: Using , you can activate a Back-step Attack where Kasane makes a weapon attack while stepping back to a suitable distance. The psychokinesis gauge will recover greatly, so adding this to combos allows you to fight while sustaining the gauge. It can only be used once per combo, but learning other skills can increase the amount f times it can be used.

'Black Bottom Saints' Is A Gorgeous Swirl Of Fiction, History And Detroit Motor Oil

Back in the heyday of Detroit — from the Great Depression through the 1950s — Joseph "Ziggy" Johnson knew just about everybody who was worth knowing in the shops, bars, churches, theaters and nightclubs that lined the streets of that city's celebrated Black neighborhood, called "Black Bottom."

Johnson was a gossip columnist for the African American newspaper, the Michigan Chronicle he also was a legendary nightclub emcee at two of the swankiest hotspots in town: The Flame and The Driftwood Lodge. And, he founded Ziggy Johnson's School of Theatre to lift up the children of the city's Black breadwinners — the workers, most of them men, on the assembly lines of Detroit's automobile plants, which ran 24/7, seven days a week.

As Ziggy tells us in Alice Randall's buoyant and innovative new novel, Black Bottom Saints: "[This] was the [economic] opportunity that created caramel Camelot."

Ziggy Johnson is just one of the over 50 mostly real life African American artists, doctors, sports figures, activists and behind-the-scenes movers and shakers who populate this novel — many of whom I've never heard of and most of whom I now want to know more about. I can't think of a more sparkling way to get some education about the history of Black Detroit beyond Motown than to read Randall's novel.

As its short chapters whiz by, you get a taste of what it might have been like to have sat in the audience of one of those nightclub shows that Ziggy emceed where, maybe, Moms Mabley was waiting in the wings while rumors were flying that Dinah Washington, along with her husband, the NFL superstar Dick "Night Train" Lane, might be stopping by. Except here, Randall is our emcee and not all the featured guests in this novel are headliners.

Black Bottom Saints opens in 1968 where Ziggy Johnson lies dying in a room in Kirwood Hospital — a Black-owned, Black-staffed historic institution in Detroit. Knowing the end is near, Ziggy decides to set down his memories. It's a conventional enough premise for a novel and the only time that Randall relies on convention to tell this panoramic story.

Consider the baroque form of this narrative: Like many of us who were raised Catholic back in the day, Ziggy is familiar with Saints Day books, a kind of devotional manual in which each day of the year is designated a saint's feast day. Ziggy hits upon the idea of structuring his jam-packed memories in the form of a secular saints day book. He squeezes in a calendar's worth of anecdotes about Black Bottom personalities this way. And, as befits a nightclub emcee, Ziggy concludes each of his "saints'" entries, not by recommending food for their feast days, but, rather, specialty cocktails. In fact, one of the very first "saints" Ziggy celebrates is Tom Bullock.

Bullock was the first African American to write a cocktail recipe book a country club bartender barred from tasting his own drinks. His book, The Ideal Bartender came out in 1917 and sported an introduction by George Herbert Walker, the maternal grandfather of President George H.W. Bush.

Ziggy recalls he first met Bullock at The Plantation Club in St. Louis and tells us, "Every bar I ever walked into was improved by my knowing and sharing that every bar in America owes something to one brilliant sepian. Thomas Bullock was the greatest bartender of all and the first black man ever to publish a cocktail recipe book." Bullock's feast day cocktail, by the way, is "The Blue Blazer": whiskey, sugar, lemon peel and a match to set the whole concoction aflame.

"Sepian," is a word that Ziggy uses a lot to refer to Black people: It's his opinionated, distinctive voice that rescues Black Bottom Saints from being the static series of tweaked Wikipedia entries it might have been. His anecdotes about real-life famous folks like the Mills Brothers, Bricktop, and Butterbeans and Susie, may be, like that Blue Blazer cocktail, part straight whiskey part flaming invention, but they take readers deep into the world of mid-20th century Black entertainers who traveled the country by train, carrying "the backdrops, the showgirls, [and] the main acts" with them. And, turning away from the spotlight, Ziggy celebrates his reciprocal relationship with the Black autoworkers who packed his nightclubs:

[When I'm driving] I'm driving some other Black man's sweat and prosperity. Some other Black man's competence. And the next week that man will be sitting in my audience. His approval will matter.

Black Bottom Saints is a gorgeous swirl of fiction, history and motor oil there are also plenty of cocktail recipes here to make the rougher stories go down a little smoother.

Watch the video: The Truth About Solid State Randall RG Amps From The 80s!


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