Yokosho E6Y Type 91 Reconnaissance Seaplane

Yokosho E6Y Type 91 Reconnaissance Seaplane



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Yokosho E6Y Type 91 Reconnaissance Seaplane

The Yokosho E6Y Type 19 Reconnaissance Seaplane was the first submarine-based reconnaissance plane to be officially accepted by the Japanese Navy.

Yokosho's first submarine launchable aircraft, the 1-go Reconnaissance Seaplane, had been produced in 1925-27, and undergone successful tests on the submarine I-21 in 1927-28. It was a cantilever wing biplane based on the Heinkel U 1. After these tests, work on the U-1 came to an end.

In 1929 the Yokosho design team, led by Jiro Saha and Tamefumi Suzuki, began work on the 2-go Reconnaissance Seaplane, this time loosely based on the British Parnall Peto reconnaissance seaplane. This was rather bigger than the 1-go, but had been successfully tested on the British submarine HMS M2.

The first version of the 2-go used the same Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose engine as the Parnall Peto, and was very similar in configuration. It was a twin-float single engine biplane. The fuselage had a metal framework with fabric covering, while the wings used a wooden framework and fabric covering. The wings and floats could be removed for storage in a small hanger on the submarine.

Yokosho built two prototypes, both powered by the Mongoose engine. The single 2-go was produced in 1929 and the single 2-go-kai in 1931. The 2-go was used for successful launch tests in May 1928, when it was catapulted off the submarine I-51.

In 1932 the 2-go was accepted for production as the Type 91 Reconnaissance Seaplane E6Y1. Eight production aircraft were built by Kawanishi in 1932-34, with the company designation Type N. The Type 91 used a slightly more powerful 130-160hp Gasuden Jimpu seven cylinder radial engine. Visually the V-struts of the 2-go were replaced by N-struts.

Type 91
Engine: Gasuden Jimpu seven cylinder radial engine
Power: 130-160hp
Crew: 1
Span: 26ft 3in
Length: 21ft 11.5in
Height: 9ft 5in
Empty weight: 1,256lb
Maximum take-off weight: 1,653lb
Max speed: 104.7mph
Climb Rate: 20min 14sec to 9,843ft
Endurance: 4.4hours


Yokosuka D4Y Type 2 Suisei “Judy”

In 1938 Japan acquired one of the prototype Heinkel He 118 dive bombers that the Luftwaffe had rejected in favour of the Junkers Ju 87. Although this aircraft crashed during trials, its overall performance had been so impressive that the Yokosuka Naval Air Technical Arsenal was ordered to design a new dive bomber inspired by the He 118 for the 13-Shi requirement issued by the Navy. The resulting design was a remarkably aerodynamic aircraft designated the Yokosuka D4Y.

Japan licensed the Daimler-Benz DB 601A engine, which was produced in Japan as the Aichi Atsuta V12, and fitted it to the initial models of the D4Y. The Atsuta was one of very few inline liquid-cooled engines used by the Japanese during the war, and it would prove difficult for poorly trained maintenance units to deal with. The D4Y’s fuselage was a very clean design, featuring retractable landing gear and an internal bomb bay, both features lacking from the preceding D3A Type 99.

Early dive bombing tests revealed flaws in the construction which resulted in cracks in the wings, so initially the aircraft was used only in the reconnaissance role. Two of the five D4Y prototypes were converted into D4Y1-C reconnaissance models and assigned to the carrier Soryu just before she departed for the Battle of Midway. These flew a few sorties before the carrier was sunk and both aircraft were lost. Further production was slow and through to March 1943 only 25 aircraft had been delivered.

At this time improvements to the wing spars had finally resulted in a usable dive bomber, and the type slowly began to replace the D3A Type 99 in front-line service. At about the same time the D4Y was re-engined, the inline Atsuta engine proving difficult for maintenance units to manage. The Mitsubishi Kinsei, a well-known quantity in the fleet, proved a suitable replacement and all late model Suisei bombers were so equipped.

Unfortunately the D4Y design attained true maturity just as the Americans were beginning to dominate the naval air war in the Pacific. At the Battle of the Philippine Sea, scores of D4Ys were lost to American fighters directed by ship-borne radar, and off the Philippines and Okinawa even more of the bombers were lost in futile attacks on the US Navy. The greatest success of the D4Y came in March 1945. Over two days D4Ys attacked American carriers operating off the Home Islands, damaging the Enterprise, Yorktown, Wasp and Franklin, the latter so badly that she had to retire to the United States for repairs and did not return to service until the war had ended.

Facing relentless bombing attacks by B-29 bombers which began to attack Jaanese cities in force in the spring of 1945, the Japanese began to convert several aircraft into night fighters. Amongst these were later variants of the D4Y, which had relatively good performance and stood a chance of challenging the enormous Boeing bombers. Several were fitted with upward-firing cannons that in theory allowed D4Ys to sneak underneath the American bomber streams and shoot down B-29s, but in practice this was a difficult manoeuvre and aircraft so fitted had little appreciable effect on the waves of bombers.

In 1943 the Allied Air Intelligence Unit assigned the Suisei the codename “Judy”.


Sommaire

La marine impériale japonaise a été un pionnier de l'aviation navale, dès 1912 avec l'achat de deux hydravions à flotteurs à la Grande-Bretagne et d'un autre aux États-Unis [ 1 ] . En décembre 1922 , le Japon avait terminé le porte-avions Hōshō, qui rivalise avec le porte-avions britannique HMS Hermes'comme premier navire spécialement conçu pour les opérations aériennes [ 1 ] . Parallèlement à ce développement, la marine a également envisagé l'avion comme moyen d'étendre la portée opérationnelle de sa grande force sous-marine. Consciente du défi que représentent les opérations dans les vastes étendues de l'océan Pacifique, la Marine a cherché en particulier à améliorer sa capacité de reconnaissance et a considéré les avions sous-marins comme un complément aux patrouilles terrestres [ 2 ] . Elle a acquis un Caspar U.1 allemand provenant des États-Unis et un Parnall Peto de Grande-Bretagne, tous deux des premiers avions de reconnaissance sous-marine [ 3 ] . Ces deux avions ont servi de base à deux prototypes d'avions japonais construits pour la reconnaissance sous-marine, le 1-Go basé sur le premier, tandis que le second a fortement influencé le 2-Go [ 4 ] .

L'Arsenal technique aéronaval de Yokosuka (海軍航空技術廠, Yokosuka Kaigun Kōshō), dont l'abréviation est Yokosho, a développé le 2-Go comme un avion plus petit que le Peto. C'était un biplan de construction mixte, avec une armature en acier et des ailes à cadre en bois, recouvertes de toile [ 5 ] . Les ailes étaient conçues pour se détacher pour le stockage, tout comme l'ensemble des deux flotteurs, qui étaient également en bois. Le premier prototype était propulsé par le même moteur que le Peto, un moteur radial Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose à cinq cylindres, d'une puissance de 130 ch (97 kW), mais fabriqué sous licence par Mitsubishi [ 5 ] .

Le deuxième prototype, appelé 2-Go Kai, différait par un certain nombre de détails. Les problèmes de stabilité latérale ont été résolus en augmentant la dérive et la gouverne de direction, en les étendant vers le haut [ 5 ] . L'avion a été équipé d'un moteur sept cylindres radiaux japonais Gasuden Jimpu plus puissant, d'une puissance de 160 ch (120 kW), ce qui donnait une vitesse maximale de 169 km/h et une endurance de quatre heures et demie [ 4 ] .

En 1931, la Kawanishi Aircraft Company a été chargée de produire huit machines de production, appelées E6Y1, basées sur le 2-Go Kai, qui ont été construites entre 1932 et 1934 [ 5 ] .

La marine a pris livraison du 2-Go Kai en mai 1929 et l'a d'abord testé à bord du sous-marin I-51 [ 6 ] . Les essais ont été achevés en septembre 1931 [ 5 ] . Le 2-Go Kai a commencé à être testé en 1931, d'abord également à bord du I-51, puis du sous-marin I-5 de type Junsen I Mod.. Le I-5 n'était pas équipé d'un hangar, mais l'appareil était plutôt démonté et stocké dans deux conteneurs cylindriques, l'un pour le fuselage et l'autre pour les ailes, entreposés sur le pont [ 6 ] . Le lancement s'est d'abord fait depuis l'eau, mais une catapulte a été montée sur le I-5 en 1933, ce qui a été jugé plus satisfaisant. Tous les sous-marins porte-avions japonais ultérieurs ont utilisé des catapultes [ 2 ] .

La première production du E6Y est entrée en service en 1933, et les huit avions ont été déployés sur les trois sous-marins Junsen II et III, I-6, I-7 et I-8 [ 6 ] . Les avions ont également été utilisés comme navires de surface [ 3 ] . Ils ont connu un service limité lors de l'incident du 28 janvier 1932, en assurant la reconnaissance, et par la suite il y a des rapports selon lesquels ils ont servi sur des sous-marins qui ont opéré pendant la seconde guerre sino-japonaise. Entre 1937 et 1938, les sous-marins I-5 et I-6 ont été affectés à la 3 e Flotte (flotte de théâtre chinois) basée à Hong Kong pour patrouiller et bloquer les côtes du centre et du sud de la Chine [ 7 ] . La marine japonaise ayant introduit des avions plus gros transportant des sous-marins, le E6Y a été remplacé par le Watanabe E9W. [ 4 ] . Le dernier exemple a été retiré en 1943 [ 6 ] .


Sommaire

Le Yokosuka Type 90-3 (E5Y1) était un hydravion de deuxième génération avec un moteur de 450 ch (340 kW) basé sur un Yokosuka E1Y modernisé, développé à l'arsenal naval de Yokosuka dans la préfecture de Kanagawa, et équipé de deux flotteurs montés à l'extérieur. La marine japonaise l'a initialement désigné comme l'hydravion de reconnaissance Kai-1 de type 14-2 de la marine de Yokosuka, mais la production a été entreprise par Kawanishi sous le nom d'hydravion de reconnaissance Kawanishi de type 90-3 de la marine [ 1 ] , [ 2 ] . En 1932, l'Aichi AB-6 était en cours de développement pour remplacer les hydravions E5Y/E5K.

Kawanishi E5K Modifier

Le Kawanishi E5K1 ou Kawanishi Type G était un grand hydravion de reconnaissance japonais à trois places des années 1930 [ 3 ] . Le E5K1, un hydravion bimoteur à moteur radial, a volé pour la première fois en octobre 1931 , mais en raison de problèmes de développement, seuls 20 appareils de série ont été construits [ 3 ] . Le type est entré en service avec le service aérien de la marine impériale japonaise en avril 1932 sous le nom d'hydravion de reconnaissance Kawanishi Navy Type 90-3 [ 3 ] .

Le E5K1 était une version de production avec un moteur radial Bristol Jupiter de 450 ch (340 kW) 20 avions de production ont été construits [ 3 ] .

Deux Kai-1-D Type-14-2 de pré-production, propulsés par le Bristol Jupiter, ont été construits par Kawanishi sous le nom de Kawanishi Type G. Dix-sept avions de production ont été construits sous le nom d'hydravion de reconnaissance Type 90-3 de la marine Kawanishi (E5K1).

Le 25 mai 1932 , le transport d'hydravions Notoro de la Marine impériale japonaise a été rééquipé avec des hydravions de reconnaissance Kawanishi Type 90-3 ainsi que d'autres ravitailleurs et cuirassés de la Marine impériale japonaise. Le E5K est entré en action lors de l'incident de Shanghai du 28 janvier au 3 mars 1932 [ 4 ] . Le transport d'hydravions Kamoi transportait un complément de 12 avions E5Y.


日本飞机,军舰中英文对照

A:(舰上战斗机)
Mitsubishi A1N TYPE 3 三式舰上战斗机
Nakajima A2N TYPE 90 九〇式舰上战斗机
Mitsubishi A3M TYPE 7 7试舰上战斗机
Nakajima A3N TYPE 7 7试舰上战斗机
Nakajima A4N TYPE 95 九五式舰上战斗机
Mitsubishi A5M TYPE 96 九六式舰上战斗机
Mitsubishi A6M TYPE 0 零式舰上战斗机
Mitsubishi A7M Reppu 舰上战斗机「烈风」

B:(舰上攻击机)
Mitsubishi B1M TYPE 13 一三式舰上攻击机
Mitsubishi B2M TYPE 89 八九式舰上攻击机
Yokosuka B3Y TYPE 92 九二式舰上攻击机
Yokosuka B4Y TYPE 96 九六式舰上攻击机
Nakajima B5N TYPE 97-1 九七式一号舰上攻击机
Mitsubishi B5N TYPE 97-2 九七式二号舰上攻击机
Nakajima B6N Tenzan 舰上攻击机「天山」
Aichi B7A Ryusei 舰上攻击机「流星」

C:(舰上)侦察机
Mitsubishi C1M TYPE 10 一〇式舰上侦察机
Nakajima C2N Fokker フォッカー式侦察机
Nakajima C3N TYPE 97 九七式舰上侦察机
Aichi C4A TYPE 13 13试高速陆上侦察机
Mitsubishi C5M TYPE 98 九八式陆上侦察机
Nakajima C6N Saiun 舰上侦察机「彩云」
Nakajima E4N2-C TYPE 90-2 九〇式二号侦察机三型(九〇式二号舰上侦察机)
Yokosuka D4Y1-C TYPE 2 二式舰上侦察机

D:(舰上爆击机)
Aichi D1A1 TYPE 94 九四式舰上爆击机
Aichi D1A2 TYPE 96 九六式舰上爆击机
Aichi D2A TYPE 8 8式特殊爆机击
Nakajima D2N TYPE 8 8式特殊爆机击
Aichi D3A TYPE 99 九九式舰上爆击机
Yokosuka D3Y 练习用爆机击「明星」
Yokosuka D4Y Suisei 舰上爆击机「彗星」

E:(水上侦察机)
He25 二式水上侦察机
Yokosuka E1Y TYPE 14 一四式水上侦察机
Nakajima E2N TYP2 15 一五式水上侦察机
Aichi E3A TYPE 90-1 九〇式一号水上侦察机
Nakajima E4N TYPE 90-2 九〇式二号水上侦察机
Yokosuka E5Y TYPE 90-3 九〇式三号水上侦察机
Kawanishi E5K TYPE 90-3 九〇式三号水上侦察机
Yokosuka E6Y TYPE 91 九一式水上侦察机
Kawanishi E7K TYPE 94 九四式水上侦察机
Nakajima E8N TYPE 95 九五式水上侦察机
Watanabe E9W TYPE 96 九六式小型水上侦察机
Aichi E10A TYPE96 九六式水上侦察机
Kawanishi E10K TYPE 9 9试夜间侦察机(九四式运输机)
Aichi E11A TYPE98 九八式水上侦察机
Kawanishi E11K TYPE 11 11试特殊侦察机(九七式运输机)
Aichi E12A TYPE 12 12试复座水上侦察机
Nakajima E12N TYPE 12 12试复座水上侦察机
Kawanishi E12K TYPE 12 12试复座水上侦察机
Aichi E13A TYPE 0 零式三座水上侦察机
Yokosuka E14Y TYPE 0 零式小型水上侦察机
Kawanishi E15K Shiun 水上侦察机「紫云」
Aichi E15A Zuiun 水上侦察机「瑞云」

F:(水上观测机)
Mitsubishi F1M TYPE 0 零式水上观测机

G:(陆上攻击机)
Mitsubishi G1M TYPE 93 九三式陆上攻击机
Hiro G2H TYPE 95 九五式陆上攻击机
Mitsubishi G3M TYPE 96 九六式陆上攻击机
Mitsubishi G4M TYPE 1 一式陆上攻击机
Nakajima G5N Shinzan 陆上攻击机「深山」
Mitsubishi G6M TYPE 12 12试陆上攻击机改
Mitsubishi G7M TYPE 16 16试陆上攻击机「泰山」
Nakajima G8N Renzan 陆上攻击机「连山」
Nakajima G10N Fuji 陆上攻击机「富岳」

H:(飞行艇)
Hiro H1H TYPE 15 一五式飞行艇
Hiro H2H TYPE 89 八九式飞行艇
Hiro H3H TYPE 90-1 九〇式一号飞行艇
Kawanishi H3K TYPE 90 九〇式二号飞行艇
Hiro H4H TYPE 91 九一式飞行艇
Yokosuka H5Y TYPE 99 九九式飞行艇
Kawanishi H6K TYPE 97 九七式飞行艇
Yokosuka H7Y TYPE 12 12试特殊飞行艇
Kawanishi H8K TYPE 2 二式飞行艇

Aichi H9A TYPE 2 二式练习飞行艇
Hiro H10H TYPE 14 14试中型飞行艇

J:(陆上战斗机)
Nakajima J1N Gekkou 夜间战斗机「月光」
Mitsubishi J2M Raiden 局地战斗机「雷电」
Kawanishi J3Y TYPE 17 17试陆上战斗机
Mitsubishi J4M Seden 局地战斗机「闪电」
Nakajima J5N Tenrai 局地战斗机「天雷」
Kawanishi J6K Jinpu 陆上战斗机「阵风」
Kyushu J7W Shinden 局地战斗机「震电」
Mitsubishi J8M Shusui 局地战斗机「秋水」
Kawanishi N1K1-J Shiden 局地战斗机「紫电」
Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden-KAI 局地战斗机「紫电」改

K:(练习机)
Yokosuka K1Y TYPE 13 一三式练习机
Yokosuka K2Y TYPE 3 三式练习机
Mitsubishi K3M TYPE 90 九〇式机上作业练习机
Yokosuka K4Y TYPE 90 九〇式初歩练习机
Yokosuka K5Y TYPE 93 九三式中间练习机
Kawanishi K6K TYPE 11 11试水上中间练习机
Watanabe K6W TYPE 11 11试水上中间练习机
Mitsubishi K7M TYPE 11 11机上作业练习机
Kawanishi K8K TYPE 0 零式水上初歩练习机
Watanabe K9W Kouyou 陆上初歩练习机「红叶」
Watanabe K10W TYPE 2 二式陆上中间练习机
Watanabe K11W Shiragiku 机上作业练习机「白菊」
Nakajima A3N TYPE 90 九〇式练习战斗机
Mitsubishi A5M4-K TYPE 2 二式练习战斗机
Mitsubishi A6M2-K TYPE 0 零式练习战斗机

L:(运输机)
Douglas L2D TYPE O 零式运输机
Yokosuka L3Y TYPE 96 九六式陆上运输机
L1P TYPE 13 13试小型运输机
Mitsubishi G6M1-L TYPE 1 一式陆上运输机
Kawanishi H6K2-L TYPE 97 九七式运输飞行艇
Kawanishi H8K2-L TYPE 2 Seiku 二式运输飞行艇「晴空」
Kawanishi H11K1-L 大型飞行运输艇「苍空」

M?MX:(特殊机)
Watanabe MXY1 试做实验飞行机第一号
Yokosuka MXY5 TYPE 16 16试特殊运输机
Aichi M6A Seiran 特殊攻击机「晴岚」
Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka 特殊攻击机「樱花」
Nakajima 无番号 Kikka 特殊攻击机「桔花」
Yokosuka 无番号 特殊攻击机「梅花」
Nakajima 无番号 特殊攻击机「藤花」
无番号 特殊攻击机「神龙」

N:(水上战斗机)
Kawanishi N1K Kyoufu 水上战斗机「强风」
Nakajima A6M2-N TYPE 2 二式水上战斗机

P:(陆上爆击机)
Yokosuka P1Y Ginga 陆上爆击机「银河」

Q:(哨戒机)
Kyushu Q1W Toukai 陆上哨戒机「东海」
Mitsubishi Q2M 陆上哨戒机「大洋」
Kyushu Q3W 陆上哨戒机「南海」

R:(陆上侦察机)
Yokosuka R1Y 陆上侦察机「晓云」
Yokosuka R2Y Keiun 陆上侦察机「景云」
Nakajima J1N1-R TYPE 2 二式陆上侦察机

S:(夜间战斗机)
Aichi S1A Denko 夜间战斗机「电光」
Yokosuka P1Y-S Kyokkou 夜间战斗机「极光」

Kawasaki Do.N TYPE 87 八七式重爆击机
Mitsubishi 2MB1 TYPE 87 八七式轻爆击机
Kawasaki KDA-2 TYPE 88 八八式侦察机/轻爆击机
Nakajima NC TYPE 91 九一式战斗机
Mitsubishi 2MR8 TYPE 92 九二式侦察机
Kawasaki KDA-5 TYPE 92 九二式战斗机
Mitsubishi Ki-1 TYPE 93 キ1九三式重爆击机
Mitsubishi Ki-2 TYPE 93 キ2九三式双发轻爆击机
Kawasaki Ki-3 TYPE 93 キ3九三式单发轻爆击机
Nakajima Ki-4 TYPE 94 キ4九四式侦察机
Kawasaki Ki-5 キ5试作战斗机
Nakajima Ki-6 TYPE 95 キ6九五式二型练习机
Mitsubishi Ki-7 キ7试作机上作业练习机
Nakajima Ki-8 キ8试作复座战斗机
Tachikawa Ki-9 TYPE 95 キ9九五式一型练习机
Kawasaki Ki-10 TYPE 95 キ10九五式战斗机
Nakajima Ki-11 キ11试作战斗机
Nakajima Ki-12 キ12试作战斗机
Nakajima Ki-13 キ13试作袭击机
Mitsubishi Ki-14 キ14试作侦察机
Mitsubishi Ki-15 TYPE 97 キ15九七式司令部侦察机
Nakajima Ki-16 キ16试作输送机
Tachikawa Ki-17 TYPE 95 キ17九五式三型练习机
Mitsubishi Ki-18 キ18试作战斗机
Nakajima&Mitsubishi Ki-19 キ19试作重型爆击机
Mitsubishi Ki-20 TYPE 92 キ20九二式重型爆击机
Mitsubishi Ki-21 TYPE 97 キ21九七式重型爆击机
Kawasaki Ki-22 キ22试作爆击机
Fukuda Ki-23 キ23试作滑空机
Tachikawa Ki-24 キ24试作滑空机
Tachikawa Ki-25 キ25试作滑空机
Tachikawa Ki-26 キ26试作滑空机
Nakajima Ki-27 TYPE 97 キ27九七式战斗机
Kawasaki Ki-28 キ28试作战斗机
Tachikawa Ki-29 キ29试作轻型爆击机
Mitsubishi Ki-30 TYPE 97 キ30九七式轻爆击机
Nakajima Ki-31 キ31试作轻爆击机
Kawasaki Ki-32 TYPE 98 キ32九八式轻爆击机
Mitsubishi Ki-33 キ33试作战斗机
Nakajima Ki-34 TYPE 97 キ34九七式输送机
Mitsubishi Ki-35 キ35试作直协侦察机
Tachikawa Ki-36 TYPE 98 キ36九八式直协侦察机
Nakajima Ki-37 キ37试作复座战斗机
Kawasaki Ki-38 キ38试作双发复座战斗机
Mitsubishi Ki-39 キ39试作复座战斗机
Mitsubishi Ki-40 キ40试作司令部侦察机
Nakajima Ki-41 キ41高速输送机
Mitsubishi Ki-42 キ42试作重型爆击机
Nakajima Ki-43 TYPE 1 Hayabusa キ43一式战斗机“隼”
Nakajima Ki-44 TYPE 2 Shoki キ44二式单座战斗机“钟馗”
Kawasaki Ki-45 キ45试作双发复座战斗机
Kawasaki Ki-45 Kai TYPE 2 Toryu キ45改二式复座战斗机“屠龙”
Mitsubishi Ki-46 TYPE 100 キ46一〇〇式司令部侦察机
Mitsubishi Ki-47 キ47试作轻爆击机
Kawasaki Ki-48 TYPE 99 キ48九九式双发轻爆击机
Nakajima Ki-49 TYPE 100 Donryu キ49一〇〇式重爆击机“吞龙”
Mitsubishi Ki-50 キ50试作重爆击机
Mitsubishi Ki-51 TYPE 99 キ51九九式袭击机
Nakajima Ki-52 キ52试作攻击机
Nakajima Ki-53 キ53试作多座战斗机
Tachikawa Ki-54 TYPE 1 キ54一式双发高等练习机
Tachikawa Ki-55 TYPE 99 キ55九九式高等练习机
Kawasaki Ki-56 TYPE 1 キ56一式货物输送机
Mitsubishi Ki-57 TYPE 100 キ57一〇〇式输送机
Nakajima Ki-58 キ58试作多座掩护战斗机
日本国际航空 Ki-59 TYPE 1 キ59一式输送机
Kawasaki Ki-60 キ60试作战斗机
Kawasaki Ki-61 TYPE 3 Hien キ61三式战斗机“飞燕”
Nakajima Ki-62 キ62试作战斗机
Nakajima Ki-63 キ63试作战斗机
Kawasaki Ki-64 キ64试作战斗机
Manpi Ki-65 キ65试作战斗机
Kawasaki Ki-66 キ66试作急降下爆击机
Mitsubishi Ki-67 TYPE 4 Hiryu キ67四式重爆击机“飞龙”
Nakajima Ki-68 キ68试作长距离爆击机
Mitsubishi Ki-69 キ69试作掩护机
Tachikawa Ki-70 キ70试作司令部侦察机
Manpi Ki-71 キ71试作军侦/袭击机


Related Research Articles

An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft. Typically, it is the capital ship of a fleet, as it allows a naval force to project air power worldwide without depending on local bases for staging aircraft operations. Carriers have evolved since their inception in the early twentieth century from wooden vessels used to deploy balloons to nuclear-powered warships that carry numerous fighters, strike aircraft, helicopters, and other types of aircraft. While heavier aircraft such as fixed-wing gunships and bombers have been launched from aircraft carriers, it is currently not possible to land them. By its diplomatic and tactical power, its mobility, its autonomy and the variety of its means, the aircraft carrier is often the centerpiece of modern combat fleets. Tactically or even strategically, it replaced the battleship in the role of flagship of a fleet. One of its great advantages is that, by sailing in international waters, it does not interfere with any territorial sovereignty and thus obviates the need for overflight authorizations from third-party countries, reduces the times and transit distances of aircraft and therefore significantly increase the time of availability on the combat zone.

Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS), a division of Huntington Ingalls Industries, is the largest industrial employer in Virginia, and sole designer, builder and refueler of United States Navy aircraft carriers and one of two providers of U.S. Navy submarines. Founded as the Chesapeake Dry Dock and Construction Co. in 1886, Newport News Shipbuilding has built more than 800 ships, including both naval and commercial ships. Located in the city of Newport News, its facilities span more than 550 acres (2.2 km 2 ), strategically positioned in one of the great harbors of the East Coast.

USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) is the tenth and final Nimitz-class supercarrier of the United States Navy. She is named for the 41st President of the United States and former Director of Central Intelligence George H. W. Bush, who was a naval aviator during World War II. The vessel's callsign is Avenger, after the TBM Avenger aircraft flown by then-Lieutenant George H.W. Bush in World War II. Construction began in 2003 at the Northrop Grumman Newport News shipyard's Dry Dock 12, the largest in the western hemisphere. She was completed in 2009 at a cost of $6.2 billion and her home port is Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia.

The Nimitz class is a class of ten nuclear-powered aircraft carriers in service with the United States Navy. The lead ship of the class is named after World War II United States Pacific Fleet commander Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, who was the last living U.S. Navy officer to hold the rank. With an overall length of 1,092 ft (333 m) and full-load displacement of over 100,000 long tons (100,000 t), the Nimitz-class ships were the largest warships built and in service until USS Gerald R. Ford entered the fleet in 2017.

USS Enterprise (CVN-65), formerly CVA(N)-65, is a decommissioned United States Navy aircraft carrier. She was the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and the eighth United States naval vessel to bear the name. Like her predecessor of World War II fame, she is nicknamed "Big E". At 1,123 feet (342 m), she is the longest naval vessel ever built. Her 93,284-long-ton (94,781 t) displacement ranks her as the 12th-heaviest carrier, after the ten carriers of the Nimitz class and USS Gerald R. Ford . Enterprise had a crew of some 4,600 service members.

USS United States (CVA-58) was to be the lead ship of a new design of aircraft carrier. On 29 July 1948, President Harry Truman approved construction of five "supercarriers", for which funds had been provided in the Naval Appropriations Act of 1949. The keel of the first of the five planned postwar carriers was laid down on 18 April 1949 at Newport News Drydock and Shipbuilding. The program was canceled in 1949, United States was not completed, and the other four planned carriers were never built.

USS Hornet (CV/CVA/CVS-12) is an Essex-class aircraft carrier built for the United States Navy (USN) during World War II. Completed in late 1943, the ship was assigned to the Fast Carrier Task Force in the Pacific Ocean, the navy's primary offensive force during the Pacific War. In early 1944, she participated in attacks on Japanese installations in New Guinea, Palau and Truk among others. Hornet then took part in the Mariana and Palau Islands campaign and most of the subsidiary operations, most notably the Battle of the Philippine Sea in June that was nicknamed the "Great Marianas Turkey Shoot" for the disproportionate losses inflicted upon the Japanese. The ship then participated in the Philippines Campaign in late 1944, and the Volcano and Ryukyu Islands campaign in the first half of 1945. She was badly damaged by a typhoon in June and had to return to the United States for repairs.

The Lexington-class aircraft carriers were a pair of aircraft carriers built for the United States Navy (USN) during the 1920s, the USS Lexington  (CV-2) and USS Saratoga  (CV-3) . The ships were built on hulls originally laid down as battlecruisers after World War I, but under the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, all U.S. battleship and battlecruiser construction was cancelled. The Treaty, however, allowed two of the unfinished ships to be converted to carriers. They were the first operational aircraft carriers in the USN and were used to develop carrier aviation tactics and procedures before World War II in a series of annual exercises.

The Yorktown class was a class of three aircraft carriers built for the United States Navy and completed shortly before World War II, the Yorktown  (CV-5) , Enterprise  (CV-6) , and Hornet  (CV-8) . They immediately followed Ranger , the first U.S. aircraft carrier built as such, and benefited in design from experience with Ranger and the earlier Lexington class , which were conversions into carriers of two battlecruisers that were to be scrapped to comply with the Washington Naval Treaty, an arms limitation accord.

USS Leyte Gulf (CG-55) is a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser in the United States Navy. She was named in memory of the World War II Battle of Leyte Gulf in the Pacific. She is powered by four large gas-turbine engines, and she has a large complement of guided missiles for air defense, attack of surface targets at sea and ashore, and anti-submarine warfare (ASW). In addition, she carries two "Seahawk" LAMPS multi-purpose helicopters, whose primary mission is ASW.

USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) is the lead ship of her class of United States Navy aircraft carriers. The ship is named after the 38th President of the United States, Gerald Ford, whose World War II naval service included combat duty aboard the light aircraft carrier Monterey in the Pacific Theater.

Zuihō was the name ship of her class of two light aircraft carriers built for the Imperial Japanese Navy. Originally laid down as the submarine tender Takasaki, she was renamed and converted while under construction into an aircraft carrier. The ship was completed during the first year of World War II and played a minor role in the Battle of Midway in mid-1942. She participated in the Guadalcanal Campaign during the rest of 1942. Significantly damaged during the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands in that campaign, after repairs Zuihō covered the evacuation of Japanese forces from Guadalcanal in early 1943.

The Mark 14 torpedo was the United States Navy's standard submarine-launched anti-ship torpedo of World War II. This weapon was plagued with many problems which crippled its performance early in the war. It was supplemented by the Mark 18 electric torpedo in the last two years of the war. From December 1941 to November 1943 the Mark 14 and the destroyer-launched Mark 15 torpedo had numerous technical problems that took almost two years to fix. After the fix the Mark㺎 played a major role in the devastating blow U.S. Navy submarines dealt to the Japanese naval and merchant marine forces during the Pacific War.

Shin'yō (神鷹) "Divine Hawk") was an escort carrier operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy, converted from the German ocean liner Scharnhorst . The liner had been trapped in Kure, Japan following the outbreak of World War II in Europe, which prevented any attempt for the ship to return to Germany. The Japanese Navy then purchased the ship, and after the Battle of Midway in June 1942, decided to convert her into an aircraft carrier. Conversion work lasted from 1942 to late 1943, and Shin'yō was commissioned into the Japanese Navy in November 1943. After entering service, Shin'yō was employed as a convoy escort in the western Pacific. She served in this capacity for less than a year in November 1944, the US submarine Spadefish torpedoed Shin'yō while she was en route to Singapore. As many as four torpedoes hit the ship and detonated her aviation fuel tanks. The resulting explosion destroyed the ship and killed most of her crew.

The First Carrier Division was an aircraft carrier unit of the Imperial Japanese Navy's First Air Fleet. At the beginning of the Pacific Campaign of World War II, the First Carrier Division consisted of the fleet carriers Akagi and Kaga . The division participated in the Attack on Pearl Harbor and Indian Ocean Raid. After Akagi and Kaga were sunk at the Battle of Midway in June 1942, carriers Shōkaku , Zuikaku , and Zuihō were redesignated as the First Carrier Division.

The Royal Navy built three aircraft maintenance carriers for its Fleet Air Arm before and during World War II. The Abyssinia Crisis of 1934󈞏 demonstrated to the Admiralty that it needed a depot ship to support the aircraft carriers in active service, just like submarine and destroyer tenders supported those types. Begun just before the start of World War II in 1939, HMS Unicorn was the first ship built in any navy that could "carry out the full range of aircraft maintenance and repair work in addition to the ability to operate aircraft from the flight deck". Unicorn proved the value of the concept and two similar support ships, Perseus and Pioneer were converted into aircraft maintenance ships by modifying light carriers while still under construction. Unlike Unicorn, neither Pioneer nor Perseus were able to land aircraft they had to be craned aboard.

The Yamashio Maru class consisted of a pair of auxiliary escort carriers operated by the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. They were converted from tankers. Only the name ship was completed during the war and she was sunk by American aircraft before she could be used.

Flag Officer, Carriers and Amphibious Ships (FOCAS) was a senior Royal Navy post that existed from 1931 to 1979.

The Yokosuka E6Y was a Japanese submarine-based reconnaissance seaplane developed at the Yokosuka Naval Air Technical Arsenal for the Imperial Japanese Navy during the 1920s. The prototype first flew as the Yokosho 2-Go in 1929.


Watch the video: Για να πετάξουν τα υδροπλάνα, χρειάζονται υδατοδρόμια