Arthur Middleton AP 55 - History

Arthur Middleton AP 55 - History



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Arthur Middleton

Arthur Middleton was born on 26 June 1742 on his family's estate, Middleton Place, near Charleston, S.C. He was educated in England and, upon returning to South Carolina, became active in local politics. Middleton was elected to the colonial House of Assembly in 1764; served until 1768; and, after a four-year absence, was reelected to the House in 1772. He sat in the first provincial congress and served on the secret committee of five people that arranged and directed the seizure of powder and weapons from the public storehouses in Charleston on the night of 21 April 1776. On 14 June, he became a member of the first Council of Safety, which assumed the executive power of the colony.

On 11 February 1776, Middleton was appointed to a committee of 11 to draft a constitution for South Carolina. A few days later, he was elected to the Continental Congress and, still later, signed the Declaration of Independence on behalf of South Carolina. He continued serving in the Congress until October 1777. While he was reelected three more times between 1778 and 1780, Middleton did not actually serve in Congress during these years.

During the siege of Charleston in 1780, Middleton was a member of the militia. He was taken prisoner when the British captured the city and was sent to St. Augustine, Fla., as a prisoner of war. He was exchanged in July 1781 and sat in the session of Congress of 1782. After the war ended, Middleton devoted himself to managing his plantation. He died at Goose Creek, S.C., on 1 January 1787.

(AP-55: dp. 18,000; 1. 489'; b. 69'9"; dr. 27'4"; s. 18.4 k.; 530; a. 4 3", 4 40mm., 10 20mm.; cl. Arthur Middleton; T. C3)

African Comet was laid down under a Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 106) on 1 July 1940 at Pascagoula, Miss., by the Ingalls Shipbuilding Corp.; launched on 28 June 1941; sponsored by Miss Mary Maud Farrell; acquired by the Navy from the American South African Lines, Inc., on 6 January 1942; renamed Arthur Middleton (AP-55) on 7 January 1942; converted for naval service by the Union Iron Works, San Francisco, Calif.; and commission on 7 September 1942, Comdr. P. K. Perry, USCG ry, U , in command.

Manned by a combined Coast Guard and Navy crew, the transport held shakedown training off San Diego, Calif., and sailed for the Aleutian Islands on 23 December. She reached Amchitka on 12 January 1943 and, later that day, took on board 175 survivors from Worden (DD-352), which had run aground and broken up while covering the transport during the debarkation of her troops. However, before the day ended, Arthur Middleton herself ran aground after drag ing anchor. Salvage operations involved completely unloading, tasting and removing the rocks from under
the ship's port side, and patching the holes which they had pierced in her hull. During this work, Arthur Middleton's boats operated in Amchitak harbor unloading supply ships and moving Army barges. On eight different occasions, the grounded ship repulsed enemy float-plane attacks and was straddled by four bombs.

While in Alaskan waters, Arthur Middleton was reclassified an attack transport and redesignated APA-25 on 1 February 1943. The ship was finally refloated and got underway on 9 April in tow of Ute (AT-76) and Tatnuck (AT-27) for Dutch Harbor, Unalaska. There, work making temporary repairs continued through 17 June. She was then towed by the merchant ship James Griffiths and Cree (AT-84) to the Pu et Sound Navy Yard, Bremerto Wash h., for correction of the damage Arthur Middleto parted Seattle, Wash., on 6 September, bound for New Zealand. She arrived at Wellington on 12 October, via Suva, Fiji Islands. The ship took on marines and cargo and sailed to Efate, New Hebrides, for staging operations. She then steamed to the Gilbert Islands for the landings on Tarawa on 20 November. The ship remained off that bitterly contested atoll debarking troops and taking casualties on board until the 29th, when she got underway for Hawaii.

On 7 December, Arthur Middleton reached Pearl Harbor and began training operations. She sortied from Oahu on 23 January 1944 with Task Group (TG) 51.1, carrying marine reserves for the assault on the Marshall Islands. The transport remained in waters east of Kwajalein Atoll from 31 January through 15 February awaiting orders to disembark her troops; but, as part of the reserve force, they were not needed. During her time steaming off Kwajalein, she provided stores and fresh water to destroyers and smaller vessels, dispatched her boats on various assignments, and repaired damaged boats. On 15 February, Arthur Middleton sailed with the task group charged with invading Eniwetok.

Arriving off that atoll on the 17th, Arthur Middleton landed assault troops on Engebi Island and unloaded her cargo as needed by forces ashore. Two days later, she took marines on board for an assault on Parry Island. The landing there took place on the 21st and 22d and, the next day, the ship sailed for Pearl Harbor with American casualties and Japanese prisoners of war embarked. She paused en route at Kwajalein on the 26th to embark more troops and then resumed her voyage to Hawaii, arriving at Pearl Harbor on 8 March.

The attack transport held training exercises off Hawaii through late May. On the 30th, she sailed with TG 52.3 for the invasion of the Marianas. The ship arrived off Saipan on 15 June and debarked her passengers later that day at Charan Kanoa. She then began taking casualties on board while unloading her cargo. Although there were frequent air raid alerts during these operations, no Japanese planes came within range of the transport

Tins. She departed Saipan on 23 June, stopped at Eniwetok and Tarawa to pick up Army troops and Japanese prisoners, and continued on to Pearl Harbor where she arrived on 9 July.

After disembarking her passengers, she began the first of two voyages between San Diego and Hilo, Hawaii, carrying troops and equipment between the two points. At the end of these shuttle runs, the transport sailed for the Admiralty Islands. She arrived at Manus on 3 October and began preparations for the long awaited operations to liberate the Philippine Islands. On 14 October, Arthur Middleton sortied with TG 79.2 and arrived in Leyte Gulf on the 20th. The ship remained in the area unloading troops until 24 October, when she headed for Hollandia, New Guinea.

The attack transport returned to Leyte on 14 November, carrying personnel and supplies from Hollandia and Morotai, Netherlands East Indies. The next day, she sailed back to New Guinea and conducted training exercises in conjunction with Marine Corps units. On 31 December, the ship sailed with TG 79.4 for the invasion of Luzon and arrived in the transport area in the Linga en Gulf on 9 January 1945 and landed her troops in the face of enemy air attack. During the operation, fifteen members of her crew were wounded by flying shrapnel from the guns of other vessels firing at the Japanese planes. The transport left Lingayen Gulf later that day to take on more supplies at Leyte and returned to Lingayen Gulf on 27 January.

During February and early March, Arthur Middleton carried out training exercises at Guadalcanal. On 16 March, the transport sailed with TG 53.1 for Ulithi, where staging operations were held for the Ryukyu campaign. The ship discharged troops and cargo at Okinawa during the first five days of April and then returned via Saipan to Pearl Harbor. She was routed on to the west coast and arrived at San Pedro, Calif., on 30 April to begin a period of overhaul.

While the ship was still in the yard, Japan capitulated on 14 August 1945. The repair work was completed on 4 September, and Arthur Middleton was assigned to duty transporting relief forces to the Philippines and returning veterans to the United States. By the end of 1945, the ship had made two voyages to the Philippines. In January 1946, she underwent repairs at Terminal Island, Calif. Following the detachment of her Coast Guard personnel, Arthur Middleton was transferred to the Naval Transportation Service on 1 February 1946.

During the next four months, the transport made six roundtrips between San Francisco and Pearl Harbor. She then steamed through the Panama Canal and continued on to Norfolk, Va., where she arrived on 19 July 1946. The ship was placed out of commission at Norfolk on 21 October 1946 and placed in the Atlantic Reserve Fleet. At the end of a dozen years in reserve, her name was struck from the Navy list on 1 October 1958; and the ship was transferred to the Maritime Administration for layup in the James River. She was placed in the National Defense Reserve Fleet on 3 March 1959. The vessel was sold on 9 M 1973 to the Consolidated Steel Corp., Brownsville, Tex.,
and was later scrapped.

Arthur Middleton won six battle stars for her World War II service.


Arthur Middleton AP 55 - History

The Coast Guard During World War II


The Coast Guard-manned assault transport USS Hunter Liggett — she saw action across the Pacific.

Throughout the fall of 1943, the Coast Guard actively participated in the Allied drives through the Southwest and Central Pacific. In February 1944, during the Marshall Island Campaign, the Coast Guard once again played an important role.

For Operation Flintlock the Allies focused their attention on Kwajalein, Eniwetok, and Majuro atolls within the Marshall Archipelago. The plan called for Majuro Atoll to be taken first to provide an anchorage for the fleet. Kwajalein would be assaulted from both ends the following day, and for Eniwetok Atoll to be attacked about three months later to allow the Allies to consolidate their positions.


Coast Guard manned attack transport USS Hunter Liggett and her LCVP's bringing men and supplies ashore in an operation repeated throughout the Pacific Theatre during the war by thousands of Coast Guardsmen.

Assembled to capture these atolls was the Joint Expeditionary Force comprising nearly 300 vessels and more than 84,000 men. This force split into three groups: a northern group for an attack on Roi and Namur islands in the Kwajalein Atoll, a southern group for an assault on Kwajalein Island 45 miles to the south, and a third group for landings on Majuro Atoll, about 250 miles southeast of Kwajalein Atoll.

The flagship for the task force attacking Majuro was the Coast Guard-manned transport Cambria (APA-36). The Majuro force steamed into position to land troops on Jan. 31. Unknown to the Americans, the Japanese left Majuro Atoll in November 1943, and only four Japanese inhabited the islands. On Feb. 1 the task force entered the lagoon uncontested. This atoll would serve as the staging area for Central Pacific fleet operations for the next several months.

The Northern Attack Force, including six transports with full or partial Coast Guard crews, gathered to strike at Roi and Namur islands within the Kwajalein Atoll, the largest atoll in the world.

They arrived in the Kwajalein area Jan. 30, 1944. The next day the fire-support vessels and aircraft began subjecting the Japanese defenders on Roi and Namur and other nearby islands to an intense bombardment.

The barrage killed a large number of the islands' 3,700 defenders. The American combat troops landed Feb. 1, with almost no opposition. All organized resistance from these two islands ceased just shortly after noon the next day. By Feb. 7, with some mopping-up actions, this attack force secured about 55 islands.


Coast Guard-manned attack cargo ship USS Centaurus .

On Jan. 30, the Southern Attack Force arrived off Kwajalein. Battleships and cruisers began immediately laying down a devastating bombardment on the enemy defenses. The Coast Guard had four manned or partially-manned transports active in the assault.

The landing went so well that the Reserve Group, including five other transports with entire and partial Coast Guard crews, did not even participate. The amphibious forces secured Kwajalein and the nearby islands by the afternoon of Feb. 4.

The quick capture of Kwajalein and Majuro atolls allowed the American leaders to advance the date for the capture of Eniwetok Atoll from May 10 to Feb. 17. They now used the Reserve Group and the men that had not been put ashore.


Coast Guardsmen assist a battle-blackened Marine on board after two days of heaving fighting on Eniwetok.

Eniwetok Atoll lies 330 miles northwest of Kwajalein and is the most western island in the Marshall group. The three principal islands defended by the Japanese were Eniwetok, Parry, and Engebi.

A task group of 89 vessels assembled, including the Cambria which served as the flagship. The Coast Guard-manned transport Leonard Wood, Centaurus (AKA-17) and Arthur Middleton also participated, along with the partially Coast Guard-manned President Monroe (AP-104), Heywood (AP-12) and Electra (AKA-4). In all, the transports carried nearly 8,000 assault troops. The transports assembled Feb. 15 for the trip to Eniwetok.

At Eniwetok Atoll the barrier islands were attacked one at a time. Each in turn was subjected to a heavy and continuous bombardment in preparation for the landings. The first island selected for capture was Engebi. On Feb. 18, the Heywood and Arthur Middleton participated in these landings. One of the Middleton's boats led the first wave to the beach.

After the first waves of landing craft reached the beach, the transports moved closer to shore to facilitate the unloading of supplies for the troops. As in the earlier assaults the heavy bombardment killed many of the defenders and the assaulting waves met only light resistance.

On the 19th, while the Engebi landings proceeded, the transports prepared to land troops on Eniwetok, and by Feb. 21 they had secured the island.

Parry Island was more strongly held than anticipated, therefore the landings were postponed until D-day plus 5 - Feb. 22. The naval forces subjected the island to gunfire for four days. Nevertheless, some defenders survived and the first wave met enemy rifle and mortar fire. The attacking forces quickly overcame the Japanese and secured Parry Island 12 hours after the initial landings.


Arthur Middleton (APA-25) Class: Photographs

Click on the small photograph to prompt a larger view of the same image.

On 10 January 1942 soon after her arrival at the Tietjen & Lang Dry Dock Co. yard in Hoboken, N. J. for interim conversion to USS Arthur Middleton (AP-55).
Although this handsome ship was completed and ran trials as a merchant ship, the Navy took her over before she could enter commercial service.

Photo No. 19-N-27716
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-19-LCM

USS Arthur Middleton (AP-55)

Departing New York on 18 January 1942 enroute to the Pacific after interim conversion for Naval service at the Tietjen & Lang Dry Dock Co. yard in Hoboken, N. J.
She operated as a civilian-manned convoy-loaded transport until arriving at San Francisco in June 1942 for final conversion to a combat-loaded (attack) transport.

Photo No. 19-N-27271
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-19-LCM

Off the Norfolk Navy Yard on 1 September 1942.
She is in her original configuration, with her 5"/51 low-angle gun clearly visible on the stern.

Photo No. 19-N-34169
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-19-LCM

USS Arthur Middleton (AP-55)

Probably photographed in late 1942 after completing conversion to a combat-loaded (attack) transport.
Note the 5"/51 gun on the stern.

Photo No. 19-N-27271
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-19-LCM

Off the Norfolk Navy Yard on 14 September 1942.

Photo No. 19-N-35228
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

USS Arthur Middleton (APA-25)

Off the Puget Sound Navy Yard on 4 September 1943.
Her 5"/51 gun aft has been removed and two twin 40mm mounts have been added, one on the stern in place of the 5" gun and one in a new elevated position at the bow.

Photo No. 19-N-50432
Source: U.S. National Archives, RG-19-LCM

Photographed on 14 December 1943 by the Coast Guard, which manned the ship.
Her boats are in the water, and she is lowering a truck into one and using both a cargo net and a gangway to embark troops into two others. The two twin 40mm guns that replaced her original 5"/51 low-angle gun are both clearly visible, one at the extreme stern and the other raised above the two 3"/50 guns at the bow.

Photo No. 26-G-12-14-43(1)
Source: U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command

Off Fort Mason, San Francisco, on 7 May 1965.
This ship was the only one of her class that saw postwar service. Aside from a more substantial radar mast before the stack and numerous minor modifications, her configuration remains essentially as it was at the end of the war.


Arthur Middleton AP 55 - History

Support Staff recognized

Charles County Public Schools (CCPS) annually honors outstanding support services personnel in the areas of information technology, central office support, instructional assistant, food service, maintenance, secretary and building services. The awards program was established to recognize the roles support personnel have in maintaining the effective and efficient operations of the school system.


Have a cool summer

If the weather is any indication, summer is here! Check out summer camps and what they have to offer students.


Salute to Computer Analysts

An important lesson to come out of the pandemic is the need for connection. CCPS computer analysts ensure teachers, students and staff have equipment and know-how when it comes to virtual learning. To watch a salute to CAs, click here.

Upcoming Events

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ICS file for the Calendar
Click the link above to download the .ics file of the 2020-21 CCPS calendar events. The .ics file can be imported into another calendar.

Use instructions below for needed apps to sync updates to the calendar.

MyPaymentsPlus is linked directly to your school&rsquos student information system (SIS), enabling us to show real-time balances and invoices, and eliminating the need to call or visit your school in search of information.

Whether you&rsquore viewing what your 2nd grader ate for lunch, renting a locker for your middle schooler, or purchasing a parking permit for that new driver in your family, MyPaymentsPlus ensures you never miss a beat, from Pre-K to graduation day.

Simply create a free MyPaymentsPlus account to get started today.

Apply For School Meal Benefits The Easy Way
MySchoolApps is the fast and secure way to apply for free and reduced meals online. Click GET STARTED to find out if your District participates.

Anchors Emily Belson and Yachi Madaan give updates on the renovations of Benjamin Stoddert Middle School and Eva Turner Elementary School. Plus, find out what CCPS teachers received acclaim and where students and parents should look for summertime fun.

All children entering Charles County Public Schools must have the following:

  • A physical examination by a physician or a certified practitioner. Physicals must be completed between nine months prior to and six months after entering school. Health Forms.
  • Proof of required immunizations against communicable diseases.
  • Proof that the student has completed the grade prior to the one in which the parent is seeking enrollment, such as a report card marked promoted.
  • Child’s birth certificate or other acceptable proof of birth (e.g. passport/visa physician’s certificate baptismal or church certification hospital certificate or birth registration).
    (If the child was born in Maryland, a copy of his/her birth certificate can be purchased from the Charles County Health Department. Call 301-609-6900.)
  • Students who are transferring from another school in Maryland should also have a copy of the Student Record Card 7 that is completed by the sending school. The Student Record Card 7 is also called the Maryland Student Withdrawal/Transfer Record.
  • Two proofs of Domicile / Residency
    *Note-Parent(s)/guardian(s) are responsible for promptly notifying the school system of any change in address. Failure to do so may result in the student being immediately transferred to the school zoned for the student’s correct address.


Three-year-old Program
CCPS will begin to accept applications for the Title I Thriving Threes Early Learning Program during the summer. The program is transitioning from a virtual to a full day in-school program and the application process has not opened at this time. Please check the website for application updates. Students eligible for the program must by three by September 1, 2021 and live in a Title 1 school zone. Title 1 schools that have a three-year-old program are C. Paul Barnhart, Dr. Gustavus Brown, Indian Head, Mt. Hope/Nanjemoy, J.P. Ryon, Dr. Samuel A. Mudd and Eva Turner elementary schools. Each school has 15 spaces for the program and students must qualify for free or reduced meals to participate in the program. Applications must be submitted online using ParentVue. The program will begin in October 2021. Families will be notified of their application status by email.

Prekindergarten
The online application for prekindergarten for the school year 2021-22 opens March 29, 2021. To enter prekindergarten for the 2021-22 school year, a child must be four years old by September 1, 2021. Admission is based on criteria and guidelines set by the Maryland State Department of Education and is not guaranteed. Placement in prekindergarten in based on student need in three categories. Prekindergarten Category Information.


Kindergarten
Online registration for kindergarten for the school year 2021-22 opens March 29, 2021. To be eligible for kindergarten for the 2021-22 school year, a child must be five years old on or before Sept. 1, 2021. Countdown to Kindergarten - Early Learning Launch Presentation

Early Entrance Procedures
CCPS early entrance procedures for prekindergarten, kindergarten and first grade.

Online registration for students new to CCPS entering prekindergarten through twelfth grade.
Parents should use the registration link below to register a child not already enrolled in CCPS. Students currently enrolled do not need to register for the next school year. Registrations can not be processed until all required documents have been uploaded. Please email [email protected] with questions about online registration or contact the school for assistance.

Parents new to CCPS must first create a ParentVUE account to register online using a valid email address.

New users must first click More Options located underneath the word Login, then select Create a New Account. Click the link below to create an account and start the registration process. The Create a New Account option is only available when you use the registration link provided below.

Parents with students already enrolled in CCPS can complete the registration for another child using an active ParentVUE account.

Parents who have not activated their ParentVUE account should email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. . The Online Registration tab is in the upper right-hand corner of all ParentVUE accounts when you log in using a web browser. Online Registration is not available on the ParentVUE mobile app until the electronic signature step is completed in a web browser. Parents can use the mobile app if they would like to take photos of the proofs of domicile then upload them through the mobile app. If you have questions about Online Registration, please email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. . Click the link below to start online registration. After you log in, the link below will open directly to Online Registration.


Arthur Middleton

He was educated in Great Britain, at Westminster School, Hackney, and Trinity Hall, Cambridge. He studied law at the Middle Temple and traveled extensively in Europe where his taste in literature, music and art was developed and refined. In 1764 Arthur and his bride Mary Izard settled at Middleton Place. Keenly interested in Carolina politics, Arthur Middleton was a more radical thinker than his father Henry Middleton. He was a leader of the American Party in Carolina and one of the boldest members of the Council of Safety and its Secret Committee. In 1776, Arthur was elected to succeed his father in the Continental Congress and subsequently was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Despite the time he spent in England, his attitude toward Loyalists was said to be ruthless.

During the American Revolutionary War, Arthur served in the defense of Charleston. After the city's fall to the British in 1780, he was sent as a prisoner of war to St. Augustine, Florida (along with Edward Rutledge), until exchanged in July the following year.


Most Read

She said that even though she was only 16 when her father died, she got the impression he still took great joy in his career, despite the episode.

"Some people said after the war, 'Oh, Ed Kennedy is a broken man. He's out there editing some little newspaper in California.' I think people had this idea that he was feeling sorry for himself. But he wasn't. He wasn't the kind of person who sat around and felt sorry."

Curley said Kennedy's daughter approached him around the same time he had become interested in the matter while helping with work on the book "Breaking News: How The Associated Press Has Covered War, Peace, and Everything Else." The publication of Kennedy's memoir prompted the AP's apology, Curley said.

He called Kennedy's dismissal "a great, great tragedy" and hailed him and the desk editors who put the surrender story on the wire for upholding the highest principles of journalism.


Spring clean your style like Carole in a floral dress by Wyse London

Wyse London 'Sophie' ditsy print dress

You'll never go too far wrong with florals, but they're particularly appropriate at this time of year. It's starting to get a bit warmer and brighter, and it really feels like spring is just around the corner, don't you think?

So with that in mind, if you're keen to update your wardrobe for the new season then Carole Middleton's printed number might just do the trick.

The Duchess of Cambridge's mother is modelling the 'Sophie' dress by Wyse London here, a brand that can count Amanda Holden, Alex Jones and Holly Willoughby as fans. We love the ditsy floral design, high neckline and puffy sleeves on this midi dress. The frill hem is a nice touch too.

It's available for pre-order now (click right) and needs only a pair of white trainers to look effortlessly fresh.

Or pick florals with the help of our edit below instead.

Missguided floral puff sleeve dress (now reduced to £18)

Nobody's Child 'Felicia' midi dress

Kate Middleton's sister Pippa was snapped days ago walking through the streets of London with what appeared to be a blossoming baby bump

Carole appears on the cover of the magazine wearing a £375 Seventies-inspired floral print dress from Wyse London, befitting the arrival of spring.

The 66-year-old opened up about her close relationship with the four youngest members of her family, explaining: 'I want to run down the hills, climb the trees, and go through the tunnel at the playground. As long as I am able to, that's what I'll be doing. I cook with them, I muck around dancing, we go on bike rides.'


Kings and Princes of Wales

Although the Romans invaded Wales in the first century AD, only South Wales ever became part of the Roman world as North and Mid-Wales is largely mountainous making communications difficult and presenting obstacles to any invader.

After the Roman period the Welsh kingdoms that emerged were the ones that commanded stretches of useful lowland, especially Gwynedd in the north, Ceredigion in the south-west, Dyfed (Deheubarth) in the south and Powys in the east. Powys would always be at a disadvantage however, due to its close proximity to England.

The great princes of medieval Wales were all westerners, mainly from Gwynedd. Their authority was such that they could wield authority well beyond the borders of their kingdoms, enabling many to claim to rule all Wales.

Below is a list of the kings and princes of Wales from Rhodri the Great to Llywelyn ap Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, followed by the English Princes of Wales. After the Conquest of Wales, Edward I created his son ‘Prince of Wales’ and since then, the title ‘Prince of Wales’ has been given to the heir apparent to the English and British throne. HRH Prince Charles currently holds the title.

Sovereigns and Princes of Wales 844 – 1283

The Prince of Wales’ Feathers
(“Ich Dien” = “I serve”)


About the Signers of the Declaration of Independence

All of the colonies were represented in Philadelphia to consider the delicate case for independence and to change the course of the war. In all, there were fifty-six representatives from the thirteen colonies. Fourteen represented the New England Colonies, twenty-one represented the Middle Colonies and twenty-one represented the Southern Colonies. The largest number (9) came from Pennsylvania. Most of the signers were American born although eight were foreign born. The ages of the signers ranged from 26 (Edward Rutledge) to 70 (Benjamin Franklin), but the majority of the signers were in their thirties or forties. More than half of the signers were lawyers and the others were planters, merchants and shippers. Together they mutually pledged &ldquoto each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.&rdquo They were mostly men of means who had much to lose if the war was lost. None of the signers died at the hands of the British, and one-third served as militia officers during the war. Four of the signers were taken captive during the war and nearly all of them were poorer at the end of the war than at the beginning. No matter what each of these men did after July 1776, the actual signing of the Declaration of Independence which began on August 2 ensured them instant immortality. The following gives a bit of information about each signer AFTER the signing of the Declaration of Independence.

Connecticut

Samuel Huntington (1731-1796) —Samuel Huntington was a self-made man who distinguished himself in government on the state and national levels. He was the President of Congress from 1779-1781 and presided over the adoption of the Articles of Confederation in 1781. He returned to Connecticut and was the Chief Justice of the Superior Court in 1784, Lieutenant Governor in 1785 and Governor from 1786-1796. He was one of the first seven presidential electors from Connecticut.

Roger Sherman (1723-1793) —Roger Sherman was a member of the Committee of Five that was chosen to write the Declaration of Independence. He and Robert Morris were the only individuals to sign the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. He was the Judge of the Superior Court of Connecticut from 1766-1789, a member of the Continental Congress from 1774-81 1783-84 and a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787. Sherman proposed the famed &ldquoConnecticut Compromise&rdquo at the convention and represented Connecticut in the United States Senate from 1791-93.

William Williams (1731-1811) —William Williams was a graduate of Harvard, studied theology with his father and eventually became a successful merchant. He fought in the French-Indian War and returned to Lebanon, Connecticut where he served for forty-four years as the town clerk. He was elected to the Continental Congress from 1776-1777, and after signing the Declaration of Independence, Williams was a member of the committee that was instrumental in framing the Articles of Confederation. He was a delegate to vote on the ratification of the Federal Constitution and also served as a Judge of the Windham County Courthouse.

Oliver Wolcott (1726-1797) —Oliver Wolcott was as much a soldier as he was a politician and served as a brigadier general in the New York campaigns from 1776-1777. As a major general, he was involved in defending the Connecticut coast from attacks by the Royal Governor of New York. He was Commissioner of Indian Affairs in 1775 and from 1784-89, a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1775-76 and 1778-84, Lieutenant Governor of Connecticut from 1786-96 and Governor from 1796-97.

Delaware

Thomas McKean (1734-1817) —Thomas McKean was the last member of the Second Continental Congress to sign the Declaration of Independence. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1774-81 and served as a delegate to the Congress of the Confederation from 1781-1783. After 1783, McKean became involved in the politics of Pennsylvania becoming Chief Justice of Pennsylvania and the Governor of Pennsylvania from 1799-1812. He retired from politics in 1812 and died at the age of 83 in 1817.

George Read (1733-1798) —George Read was the only signer of the Declaration of Independence who voted against the proposal for independence introduced by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia. He was elected to the Continental Congress from 1774-1776, was a member of the Delaware Constitutional Convention in 1776, acting Governor of Delaware in 1777, a Judge on the Court of Appeals in 1780, State Senator from 1791-92, a United States Senator from 1789-1793 and Chief Justice of the State of Delaware from 1793-98.

Caesar Rodney (1728- 1784) —Caesar Rodney took a strong stand in favor of independence and because of that, was not reelected to Congress because of the conservatives in the state of Delaware. They also blocked his election to the state legislature and his appointment to the state&rsquos constitutional convention. He was interested in military affairs and was involved in action in Delaware and New Jersey during the Revolutionary War. He was reelected to Congress in 1777 and was nominated as state president from 1778-1781. He died in 1784 while serving as Speaker of the Upper House of the Delaware Assembly.

Georgia

Button Gwinnett (1735-1777) —After the Governor died in 1777, Button Gwinnett served as the Acting Governor of Georgia for two months, but did not achieve reelection. His life was one of economic and political disappointment. Button Gwinnett was the second signer of the Declaration to die as the result of a duel outside Savannah, Georgia.

Lyman Hall (1724-1790) —Lyman Hall was one of four signers trained as a minister and was a graduate of Princeton College. During his life he also served as a doctor, governor and planter. During the Revolutionary War, his property was destroyed and he was accused of treason. He left Georgia and spent time in South Carolina and Connecticut to escape prosecution. When the war was over, he went back to Georgia and began to practice medicine. He served as Governor of Georgia from 1783-1784.

George Walton (1741-1804) —George Walton was elected to the Continental Congress in 1776, 1777, 1780 and 1781, Colonel of the First Georgia Militia, in 1778, Governor of Georgia from 1779-1780, Chief Justice of the State Superior Court of Georgia from 1783-89, a presidential elector in 1789, Governor of Georgia from 1789-1790 and a United States Senator from 1795-1796. During the Revolutionary War, Walton was captured by the British in 1778 during the attack on Savannah and released within the year. He was the founder of the Richmond Academy and Franklin College which later became the University of Georgia.

Maryland

Charles Carroll (1737-1832) —Charles Carroll was one of the wealthiest men in America and was the oldest and longest surviving signer of the Declaration. From 1789-1792 he served as one of Maryland&rsquos two United States Senators. He retired from politics in 1804 and spent the rest of his life managing his 80,000 acres of land in Maryland, Pennsylvania and New York.

Samuel Chase (1741-1811) —Samuel Chase was called the &ldquoDemosthenes of Maryland&rdquo for his oratorical skills. In 1785 he represented Maryland at the Mt. Vernon conference to settle a dispute between Maryland and Virginia concerning navigation rights on the Potomac River. He served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1796-1811. He was the only Supreme Court justice to be impeached in 1805. He was charged with discriminating against supporters of Thomas Jefferson, and he was found to be not guilty.

William Paca (1740-1799) —William Paca was elected to the Continental Congress from 1774-78, appointed Chief Justice of Maryland in 1778, Governor of Maryland from 1782-1785 and Federal District Judge for the State of Maryland from 1789-99. He was also a planter and a lawyer, but was a relatively minor figure in national affairs. William Paca also served as a delegate to the Maryland ratification convention for the Federal Constitution.

Thomas Stone (1743-1787) —Thomas Stone was one of the most conservative of the signers along with Carter Braxton of Virginia, George Read of Delaware and Edward Rutledge of South Carolina. He was elected to the Congress from 1775-78 and again in 1783. He was chosen to be a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 but had to decline because of the poor health of his wife. Shortly after she died in 1787, a grief stricken Stone died a few months later before making a trip to England.

Massachusetts

John Adams (1735-1826) —John Adams was the first Vice-President of the United States and the second President. He was a member (along with Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston and Roger Sherman) chosen to draft the Declaration of Independence. He was the first President to attend Harvard University and the first to have a son become president.

Samuel Adams (1722-1803) —Samuel Adams was known as the &ldquoFirebrand of the Revolution&rdquo for his role as an agitator between the colonists and the British prior to the outbreak of hostilities on April 1775. He served in the Continental Congress until 1781 and was a member of the Massachusetts State Senate from 1781-1788. Because he was opposed to a stronger national government, Adams refused to attend the Constitutional Convention in 1787. He served as Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts from 1789-1793 and Governor from 1794-1797.

Elbridge Gerry (1744-1814) —Elbridge Gerry served for a time as a member of the state legislature of Massachusetts. Although he attended the meetings in Philadelphia to write a new Constitution, at the end he was opposed to it because it lacked a bill of rights. However, after a &ldquochange of heart,&rdquo he was a member of the House of Representatives for the first two Congresses from 1789-1793. He was Governor of Massachusetts in 1810 and 1811 and died in office as Vice-President under James Madison in 1814.

John Hancock (1737-1793) —John Hancock was the President of the Second Continental Congress when the Declaration of Independence was adopted. He, along with Samuel Adams, were the two most wanted men in the colonies by King George III. He served as a major general during the Revolutionary War. He was elected Governor of Massachusetts from 1780-1785 and 1787 until his death in 1793. He was the seventh President of the United States in Congress assembled, from November 23, 1785 to June 6, 1786. John Hancock was one of the original &ldquofathers&rdquo of U.S. independence.

Robert Treat Paine (1731-1814) —Robert Treat Paine was elected to the Continental Congress, in 1774 and 1776, Attorney General for Massachusetts from 1777-1796, Judge, Supreme Court of Massachusetts from 1796-1804 and State Counselor in 1804. During his time in Congress, Paine concentrated primarily on military and Indian concerns. Because of his opposition to many proposals, he was known as the &ldquoObjection Maker.&rdquo Paine was one of the original founders of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

New Hampshire

Josiah Bartlett (1729-1795) —Josiah Bartlett served in Congress until 1779 and then refused reelection because of fatigue. On the state level he served as the first Chief Justice of the Common Pleas (1779-1782), Associate (1782-1788) and Chief justice of the Superior Court (1788-1790). Bartlett founded the New Hampshire Medical Society in 1791 and was the Governor of New Hampshire (1793-1794).

Matthew Thornton (1714-1803) —Matthew Thornton served as Speaker of the New Hampshire House of Representatives, was an Associate Justice of the Superior Court and was elected to the Continental Congress in 1776. He was one of six members who signed the Declaration of Independence after it was adopted by the Continental Congress. He left Congress to return to New Hampshire to become an Associate Justice of the State Superior Court. He spent his remaining years farming and operating a ferry on the Merrimack River.

William Whipple (1730-1785) —William Whipple was a former sea captain who commanded troops during the Revolutionary War and was a member of the Continental Congress from 1776-1779. General Whipple was involved in the successful defeat of General John Burgoyne at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777. He was a state legislator in New Hampshire from 1780-1784, Associate Justice of the New Hampshire Superior Court from 1782-1785, and a receiver for finances for the Congress of the Confederation. He suffered from heart problems and died while traveling his court circuit in 1785.

New Jersey

Abraham Clark (1726-1794) —Abraham Clark was a farmer, surveyor and politician who spent most of his life in public service. He was a member of the New Jersey state legislature, represented his state at the Annapolis Convention in 1786, and was opposed to the Constitution until it incorporated a bill of rights. He served in the United States Congress for two terms from 1791 until his death in 1794.

John Hart (1711-1779) —John Hart became the Speaker of the Lower House of the New Jersey state legislature. His property was destroyed by the British during the course of the Revolutionary War, and his wife died three months after the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. During the ravaging of his home, Hart spent time in the Sourland Mountains in exile.

Francis Hopkinson (1737-1791) —Francis Hopkinson was a judge and lawyer by profession but also was a musician, poet and artist. When the Revolutionary War was over, he became one of the most respected writers in the country. He was later appointed Judge to the U.S. Court for the District of Pennsylvania in 1790.

Richard Stockton (1730-1781) —Richard Stockton was trained to be a lawyer and graduated from the College of New Jersey. He was elected to the Continental Congress in 1776 and was the first of the New Jersey delegation to sign the Declaration of Independence. In November 1776 he was captured by the British and was eventually released in 1777 in very poor physical condition. His home at Morven was destroyed by the British during the war and he died in 1781 at the age of 50.

John Witherspoon (1723-1794) —John Witherspoon was the only active clergyman among the signers of the Declaration of Independence. He was elected to the Continental Congress from 1776-1782, elected to the state legislature in New Jersey from 1783-1789 and was the president of the College of New Jersey from 1768-1792. In his later years he spent a great deal of time trying to rebuild the College of New Jersey (Princeton).

New York

William Floyd (1734-1821) —William Floyd had his estate in New York destroyed by the British and Loyalists during the Revolutionary War. He was a member of the United States Congress from 1789-1791 and was a presidential elector from New York four times. He was later a major general in the New York militia and served as a state senator.

Francis Lewis (1713-1802) —Francis Lewis was one who truly felt the tragedy of the Revolutionary War. His wife died as an indirect result of being imprisoned by the British, and he lost all of his property on Long Island, New York during the war. When his wife died, Lewis left Congress and completely abandoned politics.

Philip Livingston (1716-1778) —Philip Livingston was not in Philadelphia to vote on the resolution for Independence, but did sign the actual Declaration of Independence on August 2, 1776. During the Revolutionary War, the British used Livingston&rsquos houses in New York as a navy hospital and a barracks for the troops. He was the third signer to die after John Morton of Pennsylvania and Button Gwinnett of Georgia.

Lewis Morris (1726-1798) —Lewis Morris was a delegate to the Continental Congress, from 1775-77, a county judge in Worchester, New York from 1777-1778, served in the New York state legislature from 1777-1781 and 1784-1788 and was a member of the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York. During the Revolutionary War, Morris was a brigadier-general in the New York state militia, and all three of his sons served under General George Washington.

North Carolina

Joseph Hewes (1730- 1779) —Joseph Hewes was a merchant who was one of the most conservative signers of the Declaration of Independence. He was a graduate of Princeton College, and he along with John Adams helped to establish the Continental Navy. He was a member of the state legislature from 1778-1779 and was eventually reelected to the Continental Congress. He died a month after his reelection.

William Hooper (1742-1790) —William Hooper was a graduate of Harvard College and was highly successful in law and politics. Because of his family situation and financial difficulties, he resigned from Congress to return to North Carolina. During the war he was separated from his family for ten months and his property was destroyed. After the war, he was elected to the state legislature and served there through 1786.

John Penn (1740-1788) —John Penn was one of sixteen signers of the Declaration of Independence who also signed the Articles of Confederation. He was a member of the Continental Congress from 1775-77 1779-80 and a member of the Board of War in 1780 which shared responsibility for military affairs with the governor. In 1784 he became a state tax receiver under the Articles of Confederation. After retiring from politics, he practiced law until his death in 1788.

Pennsylvania

George Clymer (1739-1813) —George Clymer had a great deal of financial talent and signed both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. His home was vandalized by the British in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War. He served in the Pennsylvania state legislature from 1784-1788 and was a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1789-1791. He was later appointed as &ldquocollector of taxes&rdquo on alcoholic beverages (especially whiskey) in Pennsylvania from 1791-1794.

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) —After the signing of the Declaration of Independence, Benjamin Franklin helped to negotiate the Treaty of Alliance with France in 1778 and the Treaty of Paris which ended the Revolutionary War in 1783. He was one of the framers of the Constitution and was known as the &ldquoSage of the Convention.&rdquo He was also elected President of the Pennsylvania Society for the Promoting of the Abolition of Slavery.

Robert Morris (1734-1806) —Robert Morris has been considered the &ldquoFinancier of the Revolution,&rdquo and contributed his own money to help such causes as the support of troops at Valley Forge and the battles of Trenton and Princeton. In 1781 he suggested a plan that became the Bank of North America and was the Superintendent of Finance under the Articles of Confederation. Morris was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, and was later offered the position of Secretary of the Treasury under the administration of George Washington. He declined the position and suggested Alexander Hamilton who became our first Secretary of the Treasury. He served as a United States Senator from Pennsylvania from 1789-1795.

John Morton (1725-1777) —John Morton was the first signer of the Declaration of Independence to die and was one of nine signers from Pennsylvania. He was elected to the Second Continental Congress from 1774-77, and was the chairman of the committee that reported the Articles of Confederation. He contracted an inflammatory fever and died in Ridley Park, Delaware County, Pa., in April 1777, and is buried in St. Paul&rsquos Burial Ground in Chester, Pennsylvania.

George Ross (1730-1779) —George Ross was elected to the Second Continental Congress from 1776-1777, was a colonel in the Continental Army in 1776 was Vice President of the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention in 1776 and Judge of the Admiralty Court of Pennsylvania in 1779. He was not a member of Congress when it voted for independence on July 2, 1776. Because of illness, he was forced to resign his seat in Congress in 1777.

Benjamin Rush (1745-1813) —Benjamin Rush was elected to the Continental Congress in 1776, appointed Surgeon General in the Middle Department of the Continental Army in 1777, instructor and physician at the University of Pennsylvania in 1778, Treasurer of the U.S. Mint from 1779-1813, and professor of Medical Theory and Clinical Practice at the University of Pennsylvania from 1791-1813. During the Revolutionary War, Rush was part of an unsuccessful plot to relieve General George Washington of his military command. He was the most well-known doctor and medical instructor in the United States. He was a trustee of Dickinson College, helped to found the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and was a member of the American Philosophical Society.

James Smith (1719-1806) —James Smith was elected to the Continental Congress on July 20, 1776 after the votes had been taken on the resolution for independence and the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. From 1779-1782 he held a number of state offices including one term in the state legislature and a few months as a Judge of the state High Court of Appeals. He was also appointed a brigadier general in the Pennsylvania militia in 1782.

George Taylor (1716-1781) —George Taylor came to the colonies as an indentured servant and eventually was an Ironmaster at the Warwick Furnace and Coventry Forge. He was a member of the Continental Congress from 1775-1777. He returned to Pennsylvania and was elected to the new Supreme Executive Assembly, but served for a very short period of time because of illness and financial difficulties. His Durham Furnace manufactured ammunition for the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War.

James Wilson (1742-1798) —James Wilson was elected to the Congress from 1775-77 and 1785-87, chosen to be one of the directors of the Bank of North America in 1781, a member of the Constitutional Convention in 1787 and appointed by President George Washington to be an Associate Justice to the US. Supreme Court from 1789-1798. He experienced personal and financial difficulty in his later years and spent time in debtor&rsquos prison while serving on the Supreme Court.

South Carolina

Thomas Heyward, Jr. (1746-1809) —Thomas Heyward was a planter and lawyer and was one of three signers from South Carolina captured and imprisoned by the British. He signed the Articles of Confederation while a member of the Continental Congress. He returned to South Carolina and became a judge and a member of the state legislature. The British destroyed Heyward&rsquos home at White Hall during the war and he was held prisoner until 1781. After the war, he served two terms in the state legislature from 1782-1784. Thomas Heyward became the first President of the Agricultural Society of South Carolina.

Thomas Lynch, Jr. (1749-1779) —Thomas Lynch, Jr. was an aristocratic planter who was the youngest signer of the Declaration of Independence to die at the age of thirty. He was trained as a lawyer and graduated from Cambridge University in England, and was elected to the Second Continental Congress to carry on the duties of his ill father. Thomas Lynch Sr. and Thomas Lynch Jr. were the only father and son team to serve concurrently in the Continental Congress. Thomas Lynch, Jr. and his wife were enroute to France in 1779 when their ship was lost at sea.

Arthur Middleton (1742-1787) —Arthur Middleton was chosen to replace his more conservative father in the Continental Congress in 1776, but failed to attend most of the sessions. He was captured by the British and was held captive for over a year in St. Augustine, Florida. During the time of his incarceration, the British destroyed most of his property. After his release in 1781, Middleton returned to politics and served in the Virginia state legislature and was a trustee of the College of Charleston.

Edward Rutledge (1749-1800) —Edward Rutledge was elected to the Continental Congress from 1774-76 and 1779, a captain in the Charleston Battalion of Artillery from 1776-1779, a state legislator from 1782-1798, College of Electors in the presidential elections of 1788, 1792, 1796 and elected Governor for South Carolina in 1798. He was the youngest of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. During the Revolutionary War, Rutledge was a military captain involved in the campaigns at Port Royal Island and Charleston, South Carolina. He was captured by the British in 1780 and held as a prisoner until 1781. From 1782-1798 Rutledge was a member of the state legislature and was elected Governor in 1798.

Rhode Island

William Ellery (1727-1820) —William Ellery served with distinction in the Congress of the Confederation until 1786 when he accepted the post of Commissioner of the Continental Loan Office of Rhode Island. He served in that position until 1790 when he was appointed Customs Collector in Newport. Although the British destroyed his home during the American Revolution, Ellery was later able to rebuild his fortune.

Stephen Hopkins (1707-1785) —Stephen Hopkins was the second oldest signer of the Declaration of Independence (next to Benjamin Franklin). He served on the committee that was responsible for the creation of the Articles of Confederation. He was forced to resign from the Congress in 1776 because of health problems, but was elected to the state legislature of Rhode Island upon his return.

Virginia

Carter Braxton (1736-1797) —Carter Braxton was elected to the Virginia state legislature after the signing of the Declaration of Independence and also served on the Governor&rsquos Executive Council. The American Revolutionary War caused him great hardship and he died in financial ruin in Richmond, Virginia.

Benjamin Harrison (1726-1791) —Benjamin Harrison was nicknamed the &ldquoFalstaff of Congress&rdquo and was the father of President William Henry Harrison and great-grandfather of President Benjamin Harrison. He was the Speaker of the Lower House of the Virginia state legislature from 1777-1781 and served three terms as Governor of Virginia from 1781-1783. He was originally in opposition of the new Federal Constitution, but later favored it when it was decided to add a bill of rights.

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) —Thomas Jefferson was the chief author of the Declaration of Independence. He was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates from 1776-79, elected Governor of Virginia in 1779 and 1780, the Associate Envoy to France in 1784, Minister to the French Court in 1785, United States Secretary of State from 1789-1793, Vice President of the United States from 1791-1801, President of the United States from 1801-1809 and established the University of Virginia in 1810. He was one of the most brilliant men of his time.

Francis Lightfoot Lee (1734-1797) —Francis Lightfoot Lee was the younger brother of Richard Henry Lee. He signed both the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation as well as serving on both the military and marine committees during his time in Congress. He left Congress in 1779 and served a few years in the Virginia state legislature.

Richard Henry Lee (1732-1794) —Richard Henry Lee introduced the resolution for independence to the Second Continental Congress in June 1776. He was a Virginia state legislator from 1780-1784 and served in the national Congress again from 1784-1789. He was initially opposed to the Constitution because it lacked a bill of rights, but he was elected Senator from Virginia from 1789-1792. However, Lee was forced to resign in 1792 due to poor health.

Thomas Nelson, Jr. (1738-1789) —Thomas Nelson, Jr. had his Congressional career shortened because of health problems. He served as the commanding General of the Lower Virginia Militia during the Revolutionary War. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1775-77 1779 and was elected Governor of Virginia in 1781 after Thomas Jefferson declined reelection. He spent his remaining years handling his business affairs.

George Wythe (1726-1806) —George Wythe was more well-known as being a classical scholar who taught such great men as Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, John Marshall and Henry Clay. He was elected to the Continental Congress from 1775-76, Speaker of the Virginia House from 1777-78 and judge of the Chancery Court of Virginia from 1789-1806. He was also appointed the first chair of law at the College of William and Mary. Wythe died mysteriously in 1806 by being poisoned.

Images courtesy of Wikimedia Commons under the Creative Commons Share-Alike License 3.0


Pick a floral Rachel Riley dress like Princess Charlotte

Rachel Riley floral button front dress

Happy birthday to Princess Charlotte, who has just turned six!

As tradition goes, we're treated to a new official image from the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, and they didn't disappoint.

Clearly, Charlotte has been enjoying the spring sunshine in style as here she's wearing a navy floral dress by coveted brand Rachel Riley.

It appears the young princess is following in the fashion footsteps of mum Kate, who is often spotted in a floral dress. Like just this week, for example, when she wore a blue floral Ghost dress for her 10th wedding anniversary pictures.

Charlotte's dress is classic and timeless with the vintage style fabric, plus we love the contrasting pink buttons and scalloped trim.

If you want your little one to see out the new season in style, then click (right) to shop the dress before it sells out.

Or peruse the alternatives below from the likes of Joules, JoJo Maman Bebe and John Lewis.


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