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As part of a personal project I've been looking for period etchings, engravings, and black and white illustrations of Paris as it might have looked during the French Revolution of 1789. Those who are familiar with the period will know that shortly after the revolution Paris was rebuilt and modernized several times by different governments, changing the cityscape forever.
The Europeana image archive has three panoramas that, unusually, are not credited to any artist. This makes them difficult for me to date. (I also don't speak French.) I was hoping someone with a better knowledge of the history of Paris could take a look and tell me if there are any telltale signs that might tell me what period they were made in. There may also be something in the French notes written below the drawings.
Because the images are quite wide I've linked to the archive rather than posting them directly. Europeana is an historical archive, and should be a pretty stable site to link to.
Acknowledgement: this answer owes a debt to some of the comments posted under the question and under this answer, especially Kimchilover.
There is conclusive evidence that all three images are from after the 1789 revolution and strong evidence that at least one was made no later than 1834. However, there appears to be conflicting evidence on a more precise date if all three images were made around the same time. This confusion relates to the text at the bottom of the images and, if we accept that an error was made, the images can tentatively dated to the early 1830s.
On the left, the nine-arch Pont des Arts gives an earliest date of 1802-1804, which was when this bridge was constructed.
The next item of interest is the area of Port des Saints Pères (Port des SS. Pères), but the Pont du Carrousel, begun in 1831 and inaugurated in 1834, is missing. This gives us a latest date of 1834 (but most likely earlier as there is no evidence of construction). Interestingly, the name 'Port des Saints Pères' was not used until mandated by a "décret préfectoral du 18 juillet 1905" (previously it was port du Recueillage, then port Malaquais) so the text at the bottom must have been added much later unless the name was in informal use before 1905. This increases the likelihood that errors were made (see Third Panorama for the potential relevance of this).
Minor dating evidence comes from the École de natation. This is mentioned in Nouveau manuel complet des nageurs, des baigneurs, des fabricants d'eaux minerales et des pedicures, published in 1838. The text in the book mentions it as L'ecole de natation pour les dames, au bas du quai Voltaire.
There doesn't appear to be much to go on here other than the Arc de Triomphe (as pointed out by Spencer's comment). Begun in 1806, it took two years to complete the foundations and
in 1810 with the marriage of Napoleon and Archduchess Marie Louise von Hapsburg of Austria… A wood and painted canvas replica of the Arch was constructed the same as it was to be built.
There followed numerous delays as regimes changed and architects died or were removed. At what stage the panorama shows the Arc is impossible to determine - it was completed in 1836 but the main structure was probably in place sometime before then so the panorama could easily be from before then.
To summarize, the earliest possible date is 1810 (the replica), while the latest date is hard to determine.
According to the text at the bottom of the Third Panorama, the Hotel des relations extérieures was under construction at the time this image was made. This gives a date of between 1844 and 1856. However, the building may have been misidentified and / or the writing en construction (under construction) may be a mistake (quite possible if it was added more than 50 years after the image was made, as suggested by the First Panorama, assuming the images are from approximately the same date).
Evidence for an earliest date comes from the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur, built between 1782 and 1787 but not called the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur until 1804 when it was nationalized by the revolutionary government.
A little further along is the Chambre des députés, the name of which was changed to the Corps législatif in 1852 so, unless the text writer was unaware of this change, the date can be no later than 1852.
On the far right, is the Pont Louis XVI, now known as the Pont de la Concorde, completed in 1791. The name Pont Loius XVI was used during the Bourbon Restoration (1814 to 1831) but, as it is not uncommon for renamed roads, bridges e.t.c. to be referred to by their previous names for quite some time after an official renaming, one cannot assume that the image dates from no later than 1831. In addition, there is the potential aforementioned problem that the text was added much later.
Finally, concerning Kimchilover's comment containing the link to Bance, fils et successeur de Bance Ainé: the OP's panoramas may well be three of the four mentioned in this 1831 volume. Unfortunately, without being able to confirm this, there is no way to be sure.
Paris during and after the French Revolution (1789 to mid-19th century)
The French Revolution of 1789 destroyed those vestiges of the seigneurial systems that had remained in Paris and consolidated the status of Paris as the capital of a centralized France. The major events of the Revolution took place in Paris, including the storming of the Bastille (July 14, 1789) the conveying of the King and the National Constituent Assembly from Versailles to Paris (October 1789) the establishment of the numerous clubs in the convents of the old religious orders, Jacobins, Cordeliers, and Feuillants the insurrection that heralded the abolition of the monarchy (August 10, 1792) the execution of the King (January 21, 1793) in the Place de la Révolution, not yet named Place de la Concorde the most prolonged manifestation of the Terror (1793–94) and the series of coups d’état, from that of 9 Thermidor, year II (1794), to that of 18 Brumaire, year VIII (1799), which preceded the ascendancy of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Under the Thermidorians and the Directory the boulevard des Italiens became a resort of the fashionable and the frivolous, whereas the populace favoured the boulevard du Temple. After the inauguration of the First Empire, Napoleon in 1806 ordered the triumphal arches of the Carrousel and of the Étoile to be erected. While the Neoclassical style recalled imperial Rome, great works of public utility served to modernize Paris: the Bourse new quays and bridges (the Arts, Jena, Austerlitz, and Saint-Louis bridges) the Ourcq and Saint-Martin canals numerous fountains (such as the Palmier Fountain, on the site of the Châtelet) as well as slaughterhouses, marketplaces, the wine market, and the warehouses of Bercy.
Industrialization, in progress in the Napoleonic period, advanced rapidly under the Restoration (1814–30) and the July Monarchy (1830–48). Gas lighting was introduced omnibus services began in 1828 and Paris got its first railway, which ran to Le Pecq, near Saint-Germain-en-Laye, in 1837. New districts grew up on the outskirts of Paris. Although the wall of the farmers-general remained the administrative boundary of Paris until 1859, it was decided in 1840 to refortify the capital with a longer military wall.
Even by the mid-19th century, some areas of Paris had not been improved substantially for hundreds of years. Access from one centre to another and to the railway stations (which had become in effect the gateways of Paris) was difficult moreover, overpopulation and rapid industrialization had brought squalor and misery, which account in part for the dominant role of Paris in the revolutions of both 1830 and 1848.
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Eiffel Tower (1887-89) Paris
For a guide to terms used,
see: Architecture Glossary.
Evolution of Art
For a chronological guide to arts, crafts and
architecture throughout the ages, please see:
History of Art Timeline (2,500,000 BCE - Present)
The Eiffel Tower (La tour Eiffel) - Paris's most iconic landmark and the most recognizable masterpiece of nineteenth century architecture - is a 324 metre-high iron lattice tower located near the Seine, on the Champ de Mars to the west of the city. It was erected in 1887-89 as part of Exposition Universelle (World Fair) of 1889, held in Paris to commemorate the centenary of the French Revolution, and named after Gustave Eiffel (1832-1923) whose company built it. It was co-designed by Maurice Koechlin (1856-1946), Emile Nouguier (1840-98), with the assistance of Stephen Sauvestre (1847-1919), all of whom worked for Eiffel. Although at the time the tower's aesthetics attracted a storm of controversy, today it is acknowledged to be a unique work of modern art as well as an outstanding technical achievement, and fully justifies Eiffel's claim to be one of the greatest architects of the modern era, in France. The tower remains the tallest building in Paris and receives nearly 7 million visitors per year, making it one of the most-visited monuments in the world. See also Victorian architecture (1840-1900).
For another important architectural and cultural landmark in Paris, see Notre Dame Cathedral (1163-1345).
Facts About the Eiffel Tower
Conceived in 1884, construction of the tower began in 1887 and involved some 50 engineers, 100 iron workers, and 121 construction workers. It was completed on March 31, 1889, at a cost of 7,800,000 French gold francs. The main structure of the tower is composed of wrought-iron, coated (at present) with bronze paint. It is 324 metres (1,063 ft) in height, weighs a total of 10,000 tonnes (73 percent wrought-iron), and for 41 years it remained the tallest man-made structure in the world, until superceded by New York's Chrysler Building, designed by William van Alen (1883-1954), in 1930. Ironically, the height of the tower was raised in 1957 when an aerial was added to the top of the structure, making it 5.2 metres (17 feet) taller than Chrysler. The height of the building varies by 15 centimetres (5.9 inches) due to temperature, and the structure sways a mere 7 centimetres (2ן inches) in the wind. The tower has three levels, with restaurants on the first and second. The third level observatory is 276 metres (906 feet) above ground level. Of the 40 or so replicas of the Eiffel Tower, only two are full size: the Tokyo Tower in Japan and the Long Ta communications tower in China.
In May 1884 the Swiss structural engineer Maurice Koechlin, together with the French civil engineer and architect Emile Nouguier - both taken on by Gustave Eiffel's company to help with the tower's architecture - made the first outline drawing of the structure, which they described as a huge pylon, made up of four lattice girders set apart at the base and coming together at the top, connected by metal trusses at regular intervals. Allowed to pursue the project further by Eiffel, they consulted Stephen Sauvestre - head of company's architectural department - who suggested adding decorative arches to the base, as well as other minor embellishments. Eiffel approved and purchased the rights to the design, which he exhibited at the Exhibition of Decorative Arts in the autumn of 1884.
In May 1886, following the re-election of Jules Grevy (1807-91) as President of France and Edouard Lockroy (1838-1913) as Minister of Commerce and Industry, a commission was set up to judge entries for the Exposition Universelle, which (for whatever reason) determined to choose Eiffel's architectural scheme with little or no consideration of the 100 or so alternatives. A contract was therefore signed in January 1887, which caused amazement as well as a wave of criticism, on both technical and aesthetic grounds. A committee was formed to fight the proposal, under the leadership of the renowned architect Charles Garnier (1825-98), which included a number of important figures in French arts, such as the academic painter Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905) and the writer Guy de Maupassant (1850-93). Later of course opinions changed, and in 1964 the Tower was officially designated a historical monument by Minister of Cultural Affairs Andre Malraux (1901-76). In August 1944, as Allied forces were about to enter Paris, Hitler ordered the city's military governor to blow-up the tower along with several other important cultural sites. Luckily the governor disobeyed the order.
Construction and Architecture
After winning the contract to build the tower, Gustave Eiffel discovered that the Exposition Committee would only contribute about 25 percent of the finance needed to build it. They wanted Eiffel himself to pay the balance, which he agreed to do provided he was allowed complete control over the tower and its profits for twenty years. The committee agreed, the tower paid for itself in the first year, and Gustave Eiffel made a fortune.
Work on the foundations began on 28 January 1887. The open-lattice iron structure consisted of four massive arched legs, set on masonry piers, that curve inward until they meet in a single, tapered tower. Each leg rests on four concrete slabs (each 6 m thick), which required foundations of up to 22 m (72 feet) in depth. The iron base of the tower was connected to the stonework by bolts which were 10 centimetres (4 inches) in diameter and 7.5 metres (25 ft) in length. In total 18,000 pieces were used to build the tower, joined by two and a half million thermally assembled rivets. Every piece was tooled specifically for the project and manufactured in Eiffel's factory in Paris.
Amazingly the entire building project was completed in less than 2 years and 7 weeks, and despite the fact that 300 workers were employed on-site, there was only one health and safety death - thanks largely to Eiffel's strict safety precautions.
One of the key features of the Eiffel Tower was its system of elevators. The glass-cage machines selected by Eiffel were made by Otis Elevator Company in the United States - as no French company was able to meet the technical specifications laid down - who helped to establish the tower as one of Europe's major tourist attractions.
It opened to the public on May 15, 1889 and by the close of the Exposition on October 31st had received 1,896,987 visitors, including the British Prince of Wales, the inventor Thomas Edison, the actress Sarah Bernhardt, and the cowboy Buffalo Bill Cody. Since then, more than 250 million tourists have visited the tower.
Other Similar Structures
Although it was the world's tallest man-made structure when first built, the Eiffel Tower has since fallen in the rankings as the tallest lattice tower and as the tallest structure in France. Taller lattice towers include:
Tokyo Skytree (2011) 634 metres (2,080 ft) Tokyo, Japan.
Kiev TV Tower (1973) 385 metres (1,263 ft) Kiev, Ukraine.
Tashkent Tower (1985) 375 metres (1,230 ft) Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
Pylons of Zhoushan Island (2009) 370 metres (1,214 ft) China.
Pylons of Yangtze River Crossing (2003) 347 metres (1,137 ft) China.
Dragon Tower (2000) 336 metres (1,102 ft) Harbin, China.
Tokyo Tower (1958) 333 metres (1,091 ft) Tokyo, Japan.
WITI TV Tower(1962) 329 metres (1,078 ft) Wisconsin, USA.
WSB TV Tower (1957) 328 metres (1,075 ft) Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Who Was Gustave Eiffel?
Born in Dijon, Gustave Eiffel was a French civil engineer and architect. After graduating in 1855 from the Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, he specialized in metal construction, notably bridges, such as the Garabit viaduct (1884). Although best known for the Eiffel Tower, he also designed a number of other major structures including: the Budapest Nyugati Palyaudvar (Western railway station), Hungary (1877) the Ponte Dona Maria railway bridge (Douro Viaduct) (1877) Porto, Portugal. In 1881 he was contacted by Auguste Bartholdi (1834-1904) who needed an engineer to help him complete the Statue of Liberty, following the death of architect Eugene Viollet-le-Duc (1814-79). Eiffel was selected because of his expertise with iron and wind stresses. Eiffel, helped by Maurice Koechlin, a young graduate of the Zurich Polytechnikum, designed a structure made up of a four legged pylon to support the body of the statue. (The statue's pedestal was designed separately by Richard Morris Hunt: 1827-95.) The complete statue was first erected at Eiffel's works in Paris before being dismantled and shipped to America. Later in life he focused on meteorology and aerodynamics. While fortunate to be working at a time of rapid industrial growth in France, Eiffel was also highly attuned to the merits of wrought-iron in architectural design, and willing to explore new techniques of prefabrication. He also adapted new techniques invented by others, such as compressed-air caissons and hollow cast-iron piers, while all the while paying close attention to accuracy in architectural drawing and site safety.
As it was, Eiffel's preference for metal frames was widely confirmed when iron and steel rapidly replaced stone in the design and construction of tall buildings around the world. For details of this form of Skyscraper Architecture, see William Le Baron Jenney (1832-1907) - leader of the Chicago School of Architecture - whose Home Insurance Building - most of which was composed of cast and wrought iron - was built in Chicago four years prior to Eiffel's tower.
More Articles about 19th Century Architecture
James Renwick (1818-95)
Gothic Revival designer noted for St Patrick's Cathedral, NY.
Henry Hobson Richardson (1838-86)
Neo-Romanesque architect famous for Marshall Field Wholesale Store.
Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926)
Catalan architect, famous for Sagrada Familia, Barcelona.
Cass Gilbert (1859-1934)
Pioneer of Beaux-Arts architecture.
Victor Horta (1861-1947)
Art Nouveau architect, noted for glass/cast-iron designs.
Joseph Maria Olbrich (1867-1908)
Co-founder of Vienna Secession along with Klimt and Josef Hoffmann.
There is no recent comprehensive analytical bibliography of works on the Exposition. Books listed below are found in the Library of Congress general collections unless otherwise noted.
The most extensive coverage of the exposition is found in
This official general report by the French Ministry of Commerce is illustrated with heliographs by Lemercier, mostly after photographs by Berthaud, Chevojon, Levy, Mieusement, Neurdein, and others. Some heliographs are of prints and drawings. Volume 1 is on the preliminary planning of the exposition Volume 2 the construction Volume 3 the financial and commercial aspects and appraisal Volume 4 liberal arts, fine arts, and education Volume 5 furniture, textiles, and clothing, Volume 6 mining, petroleum, and crude industries Volume 7 industrial-mechanical industries, electricity Volume 8 agricultural and horticultural industries, Volume 9 anthropological and social history, history of work and Volume 10 official, financial, and statistical reports on the fair.
United States. Commission to the Paris exposition, 1889. Reports of the United States Commissioners to the Universal Exposition of 1889 at Paris . House of Representatives, 21st Congress, 1st Session, Ex. Doc. 410. 5 vols. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1891-1892. LC call number: T803.E1U5
Contains double-page photoreproductions of selected exhibits and some individual paintings and art work. Commentary given on exhibit items, and brief information on exhibitors and manufacturers. Volume II, 841 pages, details the fine arts and education aspects of the U.S. exhibits, and contains photoreproductions of United States school building exteriors and interiors (labs) and some U.S. school/university laboratory building plans. A useful list of exhibitors and their works by country is appended.
Also of interest:
Angenot, Marc. Le Centenaire de la Révolution 1889 . Paris: La Documentation Française, 1989. LC Call number: DC139.7 .P37 A54 1989
Provides a brief but excellent analytical bibliography and list of newspaper/weekly sources to explore. Pages 21-24 cover the popularity of and controversy surrounding the building of the Eiffel Tower, and give a brief overview of the success of the fair.
Findling, John E., ed. Historical Dictionary of World's Fairs and Expositions, 1851-1988 . New York: Greenwood Press, 1990. LC Call number: T395 .H57 1990 [P&P REF]
Includes an overview (pp. 108-116) by Joy H. Hall on the planning, construction, and highlights of the 1889 fair, with some political commentary. A bibliography lists primary and secondary materials.
Halasz, Piri. "Paris 1889." Art Journal v. 49 (Fall 1990): 306-309. LC Call number: N81 A887
American artists at the Exposition Universelle and their works are presented, part of a traveling exhibit by the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts.
Harriss, Joseph. The Tallest Tower: Eiffel and the Belle Epoque . Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company, 1975. LC Call number: NA2930 .H37
Eiffel's other engineering works and his construction techniques are studied as they relate to the construction of his masterpiece, the Eiffel Tower. A chronological history of the tower's inception, construction, and dedication is given, as well as its context as a product of the Belle Epoque. Illustrations of engineering details and architectural studies seen in drawings and photos from a variety of sources. 257 pp. Bibliography, pp. 246-250. Reprinted in 1989 by Regnery Gateway, Washington, D.C.
Levin, Miriam R. When the Eiffel Tower was new: French visions of progress at the Centennial of the Revolution . South Hadley, Mass: Mount Holyoke College Art Museum distributed by University of Massachusetts Press, 1989. LC call number: DC715.L473 1989
An exhibition at Mount Holyoke College Art Museum, 1989. The Paris fairs of 1889 and 1900 are discussed and compared, with a section on posters. Photographs from the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division are included. Color and black-and-white plates. Includes bibliographical references.
Nelms, Brenda. The Third Republic and the Centennial of 1789 . New York: Garland Publishing Company, 1987. LC call number: DC340 .N45 1987
A scholarly treatment of the controversies surrounding the centennial of 1789 and the work of the various commissions in successfully preparing the fair that marked that centenary. An extensive list of sources, including archives, primary published sources, letters and memoirs, contemporary publications, and secondary published sources is found in the bibliography, pp. 268-304.
Walton, William. Chefs-d'Oeuvre l'Exposition universelle de Paris, 1889 . Paris: G. Barrie, [c1889]. Call number N4803 .W3 [folio]
An introduction describes paintings exhibited by France, Great Britain, the United States, and other (mostly European) countries at the 1889 fair, followed by 125 plates, some in color.
Many contemporary periodicals of the time covered the exposition in great detail. Daily newspapers include La Bataille , Le Cri du Peuple , La Construction Moderne , La Croix, L'Égalité , La Lanterne , Le Matin , Le Parti Ouvrier , Le Parisien , Le Petit Journal , Le Petit Parisien , Le Rappel , Le Soleil , Le Temps , and L'Univers . Weekly newspapers include La Bombe , L'Illustration , Le Journal Amusant , Le Journal Illustré , Le Pêre Peinard , and Le Pilori .
Prepared by: Marilyn Ibach, Reference Specialist, Prints and Photographs Division. Last revised: Sept. 2001.
Lawrence of Arabia dies
T.E. Lawrence, known to the world as Lawrence of Arabia, dies as a retired Royal Air Force mechanic living under an assumed name. The legendary war hero, author and archaeological scholar succumbed to injuries suffered in a motorcycle accident six days before.
Thomas Edward Lawrence was born in Tremadog, Wales, in 1888. In 1896, his family moved to Oxford. Lawrence studied architecture and archaeology, for which he made a trip to Ottoman (Turkish)-controlled Syria and Palestine in 1909. In 1911, he won a fellowship to join an expedition excavating an ancient Hittite settlement on the Euphrates River. He worked there for three years and in his free time traveled and learned Arabic. In 1914, he explored the Sinai, near the frontier of Ottoman-controlled Arabia and British-controlled Egypt. The maps Lawrence and his associates made had immediate strategic value upon the outbreak of war between Britain and the Ottoman Empire in October 1914.
Lawrence enlisted in the war and because of his expertise in Arab affairs was assigned to Cairo as an intelligence officer. He spent more than a year in Egypt, processing intelligence information and in 1916 accompanied a British diplomat to Arabia, where Hussein ibn Ali, the emir of Mecca, had proclaimed a revolt against Turkish rule. Lawrence convinced his superiors to aid Hussein’s rebellion, and he was sent to join the Arabian army of Hussein’s son Faisal as a liaison officer.
Under Lawrence’s guidance, the Arabians launched an effective guerrilla war against the Turkish lines. He proved a gifted military strategist and was greatly admired by the Bedouin people of Arabia. In July 1917, Arabian forces captured Aqaba near the Sinai and joined the British march on Jerusalem. Lawrence was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel. In November, he was captured by the Turks while reconnoitering behind enemy lines in Arab dress and was tortured and sexually abused before escaping. He rejoined his army, which slowly worked its way north to Damascus, which fell in October 1918.
Arabia was liberated, but Lawrence’s hope that the peninsula would be united as a single nation was dashed when Arabian factionalism came to the fore after Damascus. Lawrence, exhausted and disillusioned, left for England. Feeling that Britain had exacerbated the rivalries between the Arabian groups, he appeared before King George V and politely refused the medals offered to him.
After the war, he lobbied hard for independence for Arab countries and appeared at the Paris peace conference in Arab robes. He became something of a legendary figure in his own lifetime, and in 1922 he gave up higher-paying appointments to enlist in the Royal Air Force (RAF) under an assumed name, John Hume Ross. He had just completed writing his monumental war memoir, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, and he hoped to escape his fame and acquire material for a new book. Found out by the press, he was discharged, but in 1923 he managed to enlist as a private in the Royal Tanks Corps under another assumed name, T.E. Shaw, a reference to his friend, Irish writer George Bernard Shaw. In 1925, Lawrence rejoined the RAF and two years later legally changed his last name to Shaw.
In 1927, an abridged version of his memoir was published and generated tremendous publicity, but the press was unable to locate Lawrence (he was posted to a base in India). In 1929, he returned to England and spent the next six years writing and working as an RAF mechanic. In 1932, his English translation of Homer’s Odyssey was published under the name of T.E. Shaw. The Mint, a fictionalized account of Royal Air Force recruit training, was not published until 1955 because of its explicitness.
In February 1935, Lawrence was discharged from the RAF and returned to his simple cottage at Clouds Hill, Dorset. On May 13, he was critically injured while driving his motorcycle through the Dorset countryside. He had swerved to avoid two boys on bicycles. On May 19, he died at the hospital of his former RAF camp. Britain mourned his passing.
The End of an Era
Some major advancements have occurred in the last 10 years. But some other technologies and iconic camera equipment have disappeared. I wanted to take a look at two bits of photographic history that have come to an end.
Polaroid Instant Film
In 2008, legendary and ground-breaking company Polaroid stopped producing all of its instant films and cameras. While Polaroid pioneered instant photography, and photography in general, the company couldn’t maintain the public’s interest in instant film photography in an ever-increasing digital age.
Other companies, however, have stepped in to fill the gap. Fujifilm produces two instant cameras: the Instax Mini and the Instax Wide, as well as film to go with them. Fuji also still produces instant sheet film that can be used in older Polaroid cameras.
And then there’s the Impossible Project. This group manufactures film packs for the most popular models of Polaroid cameras. Taylor Swift famously used Impossible Project film for the cover of her album, 1989. You can find more details about getting started with instant film photography, along with other types of film photography, in my guide.
For quite some time, Kodak’s Kodachrome color film was the industry standard in photography. It was the go-to film for artists, photojournalists and all other manner of photographer. But processing the film was complicated, which equaled expensive. As such, the ever-practical field of professional photography gradually lost interest in Kodachrome film as digital photography evolved and dropped in price.
So, in 2009, Kodak stopped producing it. The last roll of Kodachrome was shot by Steve McCurry in 2013. Goodbye, Kodachrome.
To find out what the most expensive cameras in the world have been, read the article here.
The Master of Light and Color: "Impression, Sunrise"
The society&aposs April 1874 exhibition proved to be revolutionary. One of Monet&aposs most noted works in the show, "Impression, Sunrise" (1873), depicted Le Havre&aposs harbor in a morning fog. Critics used the title to name the distinct group of artists "Impressionists," saying that their work seemed more like sketches than finished paintings.
While it was meant to be derogatory, the term seemed fitting. Monet sought to capture the essence of the natural world using strong colors and bold, short brushstrokes he and his contemporaries were turning away from the blended colors and evenness of classical art. Monet also brought elements of industry into his landscapes, moving the form forward and making it more contemporary. Monet began to exhibit with the Impressionists after their first show in 1874, and continued into the 1880s.
Monet&aposs personal life was marked by hardship around this time. His wife became ill during her second pregnancy (their second son, Michel, was born in 1878), and she continued to deteriorate. Monet painted a portrait of her on her death bed. Before her passing, the Monets went to live with Ernest and Alice Hoschede and their six children.
After Camille&aposs death, Monet painted a grim set of paintings known as the Ice Drift series. He grew closer to Alice, and the two eventually became romantically involved. Ernest spent much of his time in Paris, and he and Alice never divorced. Monet and Alice moved with their respective children in 1883 to Giverny, a place that would serve as a source of great inspiration for the artist and prove to be his final home. After Ernest&aposs death, Monet and Alice married in 1892.
Monet gained financial and critical success during the late 1880s and 1890s, and started the serial paintings for which he would become well-known. In Giverny, he loved to paint outdoors in the gardens that he helped create there. The water lilies found in the pond had a particular appeal for him, and he painted several series of them throughout the rest of his life the Japanese-style bridge over the pond became the subject of several works, as well. (In 1918, Monet would donate 12 of his waterlily paintings to the nation of France to celebrate the Armistice.)
Sometimes Monet traveled to find other sources of inspiration. In the early 1890s, he rented a room across from the Rouen Cathedral, in northwestern France, and painted a series of works focused on the structure. Different paintings showed the building in morning light, midday, gray weather and more this repetition was a result of Monet&aposs deep fascination with the effects of light.
Besides the cathedral, Monet painted several things repeatedly, trying to convey the sensation of a certain time of day on a landscape or a place. He also focused the changes that light made on the forms of haystacks and poplar trees in two different painting series around this time. In 1900, Monet traveled to London, where the Thames River captured his artistic attention.
In 1911, Monet became depressed after the death of his beloved Alice. In 1912, he developed cataracts in his right eye. In the art world, Monet was out of step with the avant-garde. The Impressionists were in some ways being supplanted by the Cubist movement, led by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque.
But there was still a great deal of interest in Monet&aposs work. During this period, Monet began a final series of 12 waterlily paintings commissioned by the Orangerie des Tuileries, a museum in Paris. He chose to make them on a very large scale, designed to fill the walls of a special space for the canvases in the museum he wanted the works to serve as a "haven of peaceful meditation," believing that the images would soothe the "overworked nerves" of visitors.
His Orangerie des Tuileries project consumed much of Monet&aposs later years. In writing to a friend, Monet stated, "These landscapes of water and reflection have become an obsession for me. It is beyond my strength as an old man, and yet I want to render what I feel." Monet&aposs health proved to be an obstacle, as well. Nearly blind, with both of his eyes now seriously affected by cataracts, Monet finally consented to undergo surgery for the ailment in 1923.
Historical Events in 1868
Event of Interest
Feb 29 1st British government of Benjamin Disraeli forms
- University of Illinois opens 30th Grand National: George Ede victorious aboard Irish 9/1 shot The Lamb horse wins second GN in 1871
Event of Interest
Mar 20 Jesse James Gang robs a bank in Russellville, Kentucky, of $14,000
- 1st US professional women's club, Sorosis, forms in NYC University of California founded in Oakland, California Metropolitan Life Insurance Co forms The Lake Ontario Shore Railroad Company is organized in Oswego, New York. Chinese Embassy arrives aboard steamship China Hampton Institute opens A Hawaiian surfs on highest wave ever - a 50-foot tidal wave Thomas D'Arcy McGee, one of the Canadian Fathers of Confederation is assassinated by the Irish, in one of the few Canadian political assassinations, and only federal politician
Apr 10 1st performance of Johannes Brahms' "A German Requiem"
Ethiopian Emperor Commits Suicide
Apr 13 Abyssinian War ends as British and Indian troops capture Magdala and Ethiopian Emperor Tewodros II commits suicide
British soldiers discover the body of Emperor Tewodros II after he committed suicide following the Battle of Magdala
- SC voters approved constitution, 70,758 to 27,228 Louisiana voters approve new constitution San Francisco Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals formed
May 9 Anton Bruckner's 1st Symphony in C, premieres
- The city of Reno, Nevada, is founded Japanese Boshin War: end of the Battle of Utsunomiya Castle, former Shogunate forces withdraw northward to Aizu by way of Nikkō Dutch government of Zuylen van Nijevelt falls Bedřich Smetana's opera "Dalibor" premieres at the New Town Theatre in Prague US Senate fails to impeach President Andrew Johnson by one vote Republican National Convention, meets in Chicago, nominates Grant Train robbery at Marshfield, Indiana by the Reno Brothers Gang, who make off with $98,000 Australian Aboriginal Cricket tour of England begins v Surrey Gentlemen US President Andrew Johnson is acquitted by the Senate by one vote during his impeachment trial Michael Obrenovich III, Prince of Serbia, is assassinated in Belgrade "Decoration Day", later called Memorial Day is first observed in Northern US states 1st Memorial Day parade held in Ironton, Ohio Dr James Moore (UK) wins 1st recorded bicycle race, (2k) velocipede race at Parc fde St Cloud, Paris Texas constitutional convention meets in Austin
How the Qwerty Keyboard was Born
Jun 23 Christopher Latham Sholes patents the Sholes and Glidden typewriter, the first commercially successful of its kind
- Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina readmitted to US US President Andrew Johnson passes a law that government workers would work 8 hr day Battle at Ueno, Japan: last Tokugawa armies defeated Maori leader Te Kooti and 300 of his followers captured the schooner Rifleman in the Chatham Islands and sail for New Zealand landing at Whareongaonga six days later Surrey wicket-keeper Ted Pooley completes a then-1st class cricket record 12 dismissals (8 caught, 4 stumped) in a County match against Sussex at The Oval 1st African American cabinet member in South Carolina, Francis L Cardozo as Secretary of State Louisiana and South Carolina are the last states to ratify the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution, guaranteeing civil rights Oscar J Dunn, former slave, installed as Lieutenant Governor of Louisiana Alvin J Fellows patents tape measure 1st use of tax stamps on cigarettes All England Lawn Tennis Club is founded as The All England Croquet Club 1877 name changed to The All England Croquet & Lawn Tennis Club
Event of Interest
Jul 28 US Secretary of State William H. Seward announces 14th Amendment ratified by states, grants citizenship to ex-slaves
- Earthquake destroys the city of Arica, Chile Earthquakes kill 25,000 & causes $300 million damages (Peru & Ecuador) French Astronomer Pierre Janssen discovers helium in solar spectrum during eclipse New York Athletic Club forms Golf's 1st recorded hole-in-one by Tom Morris at Prestwick's 8th hole, Scotland Race riots in New Orleans, Louisiana Grito de Lares proclaims Puerto Rico's independence (crushed by Spain) British Open Men's Golf, Prestwick GC: Tom Morris Jr. beats his father, Tom Morris Sr. by 3 strokes at 17 young Morris remains youngest Open champion The Imperial Russian steam frigate Alexander Nevski shipwrecks off Jutland while carrying Grand Duke Alexei of Russia. Battle of Alcolea, causes Queen Isabella II of Spain to flee to France Opelousas Massacre at St Landry Parish Louisiana (200 blacks killed) Spain's Queen Isabella is deposed, flees to France 1st edition of Maasbode published
Oct 1 "Little Women" by Louisa May Alcott is published in America by Roberts Brothers of Boston
- Cornell University (Ithaca NY) opens 1st written account of a Canadian football game Cuba revolts for independence against Spain Constitution of Grand Duchy of Luxembourg comes into effect
Election of Interest
Nov 3 Ulysses S. Grant (R) wins US presidential election over Horatio Seymour (D)
Victory in Battle
Nov 11 War of the Triple Alliance: Allied victory in the Battle of Avay leaves 3,000 Paraguayan soldiers dead, 600 wounded and the road to Asunción open
- American Philological Association organized in NY Louis Ducos du Hauron patents trichrome color photo process 1st baseball game played in enclosed field in San Francisco, at 25th & Folsom
Battle of Interest
Nov 27 Battle at Washita River, Oklahoma. General George A. Custer attacks group of Native American Indians, their chief Black Kettle dies in the attack
Event of Interest
Nov 30 The inauguration of a statue of King Charles XII of Sweden takes place in the King's garden in Stockholm
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Discounts and other deals
If a museum’s entrance is not free, you can often find various discounts if you know where to look, so work up the courage to ask if the price seems steep. Youth and “under 18” visitors can usually get reductions even if you don’t have EU paperwork, so visitors can still benefit from reductions.
Museums often work in tandem to offer discounts. For example, if you present your ticket to the Musée d’Orsay when you visit the Palais Garnier, you’ll receive a discount (if you visit within eight days). Obviously, right? Check out the offers posted at the ticket booth.
The Hotel des Invalides plays the same game every day after 5 p.m. in the summer and 4 p.m. in the winter when tickets are reduced from €11 to €9. While this €2 saving may seem like nothing, that could pay for a café, almost a glass of wine, or two good baguettes…